First Aid for the
USMLE Step 1 2011 EXPRESS workbook
Copyright © 2011 by MedIQ Learning, LLC All rights reserved
13. What are the effects of angiotensin II on the glomerulus?
14. Decreased plasma protein concentration causes __________ (decrease/increase/no change) in renal plasma flow and __________ (decrease/increase/no change) in GFR, which in turn results in __________ (decrease/increase/no change) in the filtration fraction.
15. Constriction of the afferent arteriole causes __________ (decrease/increase/no change) in renal plasma flow and __________ (decrease/increase/no change) in GFR, which in turn results in __________ (decrease/increase/no change) in the filtration fraction.
16. What is the formula for excretion rate?
_________________________________________ 17. In the nephron, glucose at normal plasma concentrations is reabsorbed in which structure? And by which transporter?
________________________________________________________ 18. At what plasma glucose concentration is the transport mechanism of the proximal tubule completely saturated, leading to glucose spilling into the urine?
_____________________ 19. How and where are amino acids reabsorbed in the kidney?
20. What substance is secreted into the lumen of the early proximal convoluted tubule and acts as a buffer for hydrogen ions?
___________________________________________________ 21. Which two ions are actively reabsorbed in the thick ascending loop of Henle?
22. Which three ions are indirectly reabsorbed in the thick ascending loop of Henle?
23. Which hormone controls the reabsorption of calcium in the early distal convoluted tubule?
______________________________________________________________________________ 24. On which segment of the nephron does the hormone aldosterone act?
receptors results in what action?
_______________________________ 26. The ratio of solute concentration in the tubular fluid versus plasma (TF/P) can indicate the level of secretion or reabsorption of that solute along the proximal renal tubule. If the TF/P ratio of that solute is less than that of inulin, there is net __________ (reabsorption/secretion) along the proximal tubule.
27. Along the length of the proximal tubule, does the relative concentration of chloride increase, decrease, or stay the same?
_________________________________________________ 28. Which five actions of angiotensin II serve to increase intravascular volume and blood pressure?