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Verbal Notes- Sentence Correction Notes 133 126

Verbal Notes- Sentence Correction Notes 133 126

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Sentence Correction Notes – TOC
I am still editiing it..... .................................................................................................... 9This is my collection after visiting few sites and going through some examples, answers andtheir explainations. ......................................................................................................... 9I dont know how to make this editable by others. ............................................................... 9Thanks. ......................................................................................................................... 9http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar ............................................................................. 9Guide to English Grammar ............................................................................................... 9This site is very usefull for those who want to learn enlgish Grammar in a short amount of time.It also has JAVA enabled tests that help one achieve his or her goal. The topic on phrases isvery useful and is most important to solve modifier questions. The Grammar follows TheAmerican Heritage Book Of English Usage. ........................................................................ 9Learn about Grammar Traps at ......................................................................................... 9Great link : http://www.agriculture.purdue.edu/agcomm/traps.html ..................................... 91. Just as ...., so ............................................................................................................ 9This is a idiom. Just remember it. ..................................................................................... 92. in that vs because - in that is used to talk about some aspects, and because is used to talkabout all aspects ............................................................................................................ 9Example : ..................................................................................................................... 9Going to Ivy league college is very stressful because it includes huge expenses. .................... 9means .......................................................................................................................... 9Going to Ivy league college is very stressful in all aspects ................................................... 9Going to Ivy league college is very stressful in that it includes huge expenses. ...................... 9means .......................................................................................................................... 9Going to Ivy league college is very stressful from economic point of view. ............................. 93. ...............................................................................................................................10so + adjective/adverb/noun + that + sentence ................................................................10Example - So hard that .................................................................................................10so + adjective/adverb/noun + as + infinitive ...................................................................10Example - So hard as to ................................................................................................10Example : ....................................................................................................................10Usage - Something is so beautiful that... is preferred over so beautiful is soemthing that... ...104. Although all the shows telecast were not live - It means none of the shows were telecast live...................................................................................................................................10Although not all the shows were telecast live - It means some of them were telecast live. .....105. such as - Means for example ......................................................................................106. in order to do - short form is to do ..............................................................................107. I hate him, for he is a christian - the word for means because ........................................108. Greater numbers is preferrable to more numbers ..........................................................109. usage of so as to and so that .....................................................................................10First, you should know that such + noun + as to is much less common than so + adj/adv + asto. ..............................................................................................................................10Now, for the difference between these two. I think these are best illustrated with examples: . 10Xue Mei spoke in such a way as to calm us down. .............................................................10The sales materials are presented in such a way as to encourage attendees to purchase theproducts on the spot. ....................................................................................................10These usages focus on doing an action and paying to that action while you are doing it so thatthe action creates .........................................................................................................11a result. To simplify a bit, these usages answer the question, Why did you do it in that way? . 11So, the most common words to use with this pattern are way, manner, etc. .........................11Compare these similar sentences: ..................................................................................11Xue Mei spoke so that we would stop asking her questions. ...............................................11The sales materials are presented at the end of the meetings so that the participants won'trealize the meeting .......................................................................................................11is actually a sales presentation. ......................................................................................11
GR SC Notes- 1 -
 
The part that comes after so... that... answers the question WHY. ......................................1110. equally well vs as well .............................................................................................11as well - means also .....................................................................................................11equally well - is used for comparision. .............................................................................1111. because is preferrable to Since is preferrable to being .................................................1112. Rather than is (usually) a conjunction, NOT a preposition; instead of is a preposition, NOT aconjunction. .................................................................................................................1113. Absolute phrase example .........................................................................................11I chose A, which is the right answer, but I don't really understand why. Is A an absolute phrase? ...................................................................................................................................11For several decades after 1830, Paterson was among the fastest growing cities, its populationnearly doubling every ten years. .....................................................................................11a... .............................................................................................................................11b. with nearly doubled population every ten years. ...........................................................11c. its population was almost twice as much every ten years. ..............................................12d. every ten years its population was almost doubled ........................................................12e. almost every ten years population was twice as much ...................................................12Paterson was among the fastest growing cities, and its population was nearly doubling everyten years. ....................................................................................................................12That's the main idea with absolute phrases, since they never include the conjunction or theverb. You should also know that when the -ing form or being is correct, it's because thesewords are in an absolute phrase; ....................................................................................12Country X saw dramatic increases in many industries, with industry Y being the industry withthe greatest increase. ...................................................................................................1214 Usage of likelihood ...................................................................................................121. likelihood that something will happen ..........................................................................122. likelihood of something ..............................................................................................12Example ......................................................................................................................12Likelihood that violence will errupt. .................................................................................12Likelihood of snowing today is low. .................................................................................1215 one of NOUN (this noun will always be plural) + PLURAL VERB ......................................1216 Great usually describes nouns which express feelings or qualities. ..................................12e.g. great admiration, great anger, in great detail .............................................................12Large is often used with nouns concerning numbers and measurements. It is not usually usedwith uncountable nouns. ................................................................................................12e.g. a large amount, a large number (of), a large population, a large proportion ..................1217 Usage of Where and When ........................................................................................13where can be used in the sense of whereas, as can while. However, if you have to choosebetween while and whereas, you should go with whereas (or where in this case) if while can beambiguous in the sentence, since it can mean whereas or at the same time that. .................13Here's an example of a sentence in which while can have an ambiguous meaning: ...............13Diana prefers to eat at McDonald's while Tomo eats at Burger King. ....................................13If while means although here, then we have the simple meaning of contrast--one prefers X, butthe other prefers Y. .......................................................................................................13If while means at the same time that here, then we have a somewhat strange sentence thatsays that Diana enjoys eating at McD's when Tomo goes to Burger King. In other words,something like Diana will enjoy it only when Tomo is doing something else, kind of an illogicalsentence. ....................................................................................................................1318 equal vs equivalent ..................................................................................................13The new resort hotel will serve 20,000 tourists at its maximum capacity, equaling the capacityof a large stadium. .......................................................................................................13(A) equaling the capacity of a large stadium ....................................................................13(B) which equals a large stadium ....................................................................................13(C) which equals that of a large stadium's .......................................................................13(D) the equivalent of that of a large stadium's ..................................................................13(E) the equivalent of a large stadium's ............................................................................13
GR SC Notes- 2 -
 
Well, GMAT has written in one of their explanations that equal should be used only in itsstrictest sense, for example, ..........................................................................................144 + 3 is equal to 5 + 2. .................................................................................................14equivalent, GMAT says, is preferable when we are saying that two things are not entirelyidentical, but are almost equal. For example, Country X spent $XX on something, equivalent tothe GDP of Country Y. ...................................................................................................1419. whether vs if ..........................................................................................................14A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers; thequestion is whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after theirhorns are trimmed. .......................................................................................................14(A) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are...................................................................................................................................14(B) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one once their horns are ...........14(C) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animals'horns have been ...........................................................................................................14(D) if tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses once the animals' hornsare .............................................................................................................................14(E) if tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one after the animals' horns have been 14The real focus of the question here is whether vs. if. There is a little rhyme to help youremember: ..................................................................................................................14If you see whether and if... whether is better ...................................................................14Of course, this rhyme is just to help you remember, it doesn't explain the rule. ....................14We use if for conditions: I will help you if I can. ................................................................14and for things that might happen: ..................................................................................14If you need a hand, please let me know. .........................................................................14We use whether when we have two options: ....................................................................14We will have the picnic whether or not it rains. (Two options: rain/no rain.) .........................15Another way to think of this is if we can add or not, then we MUST use whether. (Of course,you'll remember that GMAT does NOT like to add or not; GMAT considers the or not redundant.)...................................................................................................................................15Furthermore, in this sentence ........................................................................................15question... is... .............................................................................................................15we are missing a noun complement. ...............................................................................15Strictly speaking, we should NOT use an adjective clause as a noun complement; we should use a noun clause. ..............................................................................................................15You will recall that if can NEVER be used in noun clauses (only in adverb clauses), but whetherCAN be used in noun clauses. ........................................................................................1520. for all vs along with .................................................................................................15Second, for all means despite, and along with means in addition to. I'm sure you'll agree thatthe meanings are different, right? ...................................................................................1521. Subjunctive rule ......................................................................................................15The preferred rule for GMAT is this: ................................................................................15subjunctive word (such as demand, suggest, recommend, require, order, mandate) + that +NOUN + BASE FORM of the VERB (e.g., be, go, stop, run, excel) i.e., the infinitive without theto part. .......................................................................................................................152) All five-hundred dollar and thousand-dollar bills were withdrawn from circulation in 1969,and this left the one-hundred dollar bill to be the highest denomination of currency. .............16a) and this left the one-hundred dollar bill to be the highest denomination of currency ..........16b) an act which has left the hundred-dollar bill to be the highest crrency denomination. ........16c) leaving the highest denomination of currency to be the one-hundred dollar bill .................16d) leaving the one-hundred dollar bill as the highest denomination of currency. ....................16this, which, that, and other pronouns MUST replace nouns, not sentences. ..........................16this in A) and which B) refer to the entire sentence. ..........................................................16In A, this replaces the whole sentence All five-hundred dollar and thousand-dollar bills werewithdrawn from circulation in 1969. If we choose D, we have a participial phrase, which GMATallows to modify a sentence. ..........................................................................................1621 Quick rules: .............................................................................................................16
GR SC Notes- 3 -

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