Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1


|Views: 303|Likes:
Published by iyeniyen
Philosophy and Religion
Philosophy and Religion

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: iyeniyen on Aug 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as TXT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Sharmien V. VentanillaSir. ParedesII-BSAPhilosophy and Ethics(Philosophy and Religion)I. Scope of Report:The Minds of the Later Greek ThinkersThe Greco-Religious ThinkersThe Early and Medieval Christian ThinkersThe Minds of the Forerunners of RenaissanceII. DiscussionThe Minds of the Later Greek ThinkersThere are three views of religion based on the minds of the later Greekthinkers:EpicureansBackground: The taught of the epicureans were founded by Epicurus. According toEpicurus faith is necessary in order for a person to live a prudent life whichlater on, will bring a fuller life and lasting happiness.This group supports the belief of polytheism in which the polytheists werebeliever of many gods and goddesses. The view of Epicureans was from the doctrineof Epicurus. According to Epicurus, gods are human-like but far more beautiful,incorruptible (not subject to death), material, perfect, and inhabited in theworld. However these gods were not interested in men and did not interact withhumans, or neither create the world. These gods lived in a peaceful, contentedlife, free from all worries and cares of men. These gods differ in sex, neededfood, spoke the languages of the Greeks. However even if Epicureans werepolytheist or believer of many gods there are still some distinction: (1) althoughepicureans were believer of many gods this does not mean that they are worshippingof all the gods in whom they believed, (2) there are different cities thatworshipped different gods, and (3) sometimes different gods were worshipped atdifferent times.StoicsThe stoic on the other hand emphasize that there is only one God related tothe world just as there is only one soul per human body. According to the Stoics,God has physical characteristics, bodily, but a body of high quality features. Thestoic opined that there is only one God responsible for everything in theuniverse. Under the stoic doctrine, each person is a part of God and that all thepeople form a universal family break down national, social, and racial barriersand prepare the way to the spread of Christianity. The stoics believed that God isan Omniscient God. They infer that He is the father of everything in the universethat is why He is interested in the activity of humans. According to them, Godpunishes the evil and rewards the good and that He lives in the farthest circle ofthe universe but still know all from that point.
CarneadesFor Cardeanes, the views of the Stoics are ridiculous. According to him menare incapable of knowing God that they cannot even prove the existence of God.According to Carneades, we must be skeptical or not easily convince or drive byany factors.The Greco-Religious ThinkersPHILOBackground: Philo was noted to have some from the great Hebrew tradition.The Hebrew people emphasize the worship of "THE ONE". God is central totheir psyche or their spirit. Philo insisted that the nature of God was so farfrom human understanding. For him, God is so far above man in greatness, goodness,power, and perfection that we cannot know what he is but one can be certain thatHe exists. Philo taught that God is the source of everything, is absolutely good,perfect, and blessed. Contrary to this, Philo said that God cannot come in contactwith matter for He is so exalted or highly praise. However Philo taught that Godgives off light which combine in one power which Philo called "Logos" or thedivine Wisdom. According to him it was the divine Wisdom that create the universe,and that the "Logos" is the intermediary between God and the world. Here we caninfer that God is separated from the world we dwell in.PLOTINUSPlotinus supported the same thing as Philo. He infers from Philo that thatGod is the source of everything but God is so perfect that we cannot know anythingabout Him. However, according to him, anything that people think about God is toopoor to be true of him. He infers that God is far above everything we, people canthink. He opined that God create the world through the means of emanations and notdirectly. The world also depends upon God, but God does not need the world. Forfrom the view of Plotinus, "God is like an infinite stream which flow out but isnever exhausted".For Plotinus, the main function of Philosophy is to prepare individuals forthe experience of ecstasy, in which they become one with God. For him God isbeyond rational understanding and is a source of all reality. Also, the universeis a product by God by a mysterious process of overflowing divine energy. ForPlotinus the highest goal of life is to purify oneself of dependence on bodilycomforts and, through philosophical meditation, to prepare oneself for an ecstaticreunion with God.The Early and Medieval Christian ThinkersChristianity is not really an old phenomenon for the world. The followingdifferent views of early and medieval Christian Thinkers.ApologistsFrom the Apologists arose the tradition to bless the marriage ofChristianity. According to them, through "Logos" or "Reason" God created theuniverse. God is the First Cause of everything including changes. They infer thatbecause of God's existence order and reason are maintained and that all thechanges in the world are within God's control. According to them, God is thesource of everything, is good, and is eternal. For the Apologists God emits logosor "divine wisdom" which is for them the source why the universe was created. For
them, God is a pure reason personified that means that they believed that God ishuman or a person.St. AugustineSt. Augustine emphasized the vast difference between God and the World. Fromhis viewpoint, God is eternal, powerful, transcended, all good, all wise, absolutein many and every way; the cause of everything; the creator of the universe out ofnothing. For St. Augustine everything in this world is predetermined so that Godknew from the very beginning what will happen to the creation and creaturesthroughout eternity and has dominance over it. God for St. Augustine is theidealization of everything that man considers good and worthy.St. Augustine believed that God was one but expressed himself in theuniverse as three persons.John Scotus ErigenaBackground: John Scotus Erigina was an Irish monk in the 9th century thatdeveloped an interpretation of Christianity in identifying the Divine Trinity.Even if John Scotus Erigena supports St. Augustine that God was the sourceof everything he argued that God and His creation are one contrary to St.Augustine view. For him, God existence is in the world and that He is the world.For him, God is perfect goodness, power, and wisdom, however he proposed that Godis never wholly known by men that although man can understand and know somethingabout God but up to limited extent. For him, God is in reality unknowable andindefinable that men with his little brain cannot understand His nature.AgnotismBackground: The developments of Christianity during the first century give rise tothe belief or view of Agnotism. For the people back then believed that God had tobe bridged by something or someone that is tangible.According to the view of Agnotism, the Logos was the intermediate being thatit is between God and the world. Various thinkers of that time believed that Jesuswas the Logos that was sent by the Father. Also, the early Christians did not onlyregard Jesus but were also concern of the presence of the Holy Spirit. The peoplebelieved that Jesus, the Logos and the Holy Spirit were emanations of God.From there, the concept of the Trinity arises. The Church taught God notonly as one but also as Three Persons: God, Christ or the Logos, and the HolySpirit.ModalistsModalists believed in the concept of Trinity. Modalists believed that allthree persons are actually God in three forms or modes. The Logos is actually Godcreating; the Holy Spirit is actually God reasoning; and God is actually Godbeing. However from the view of the Modalists, questions arises whether Logos wasthe same substance as God, or if Logos an emanation from God, or is it God inanother formAthanasian PositionBackground: Founded by Athanasius, the leader of a group of early Christianthinkers.

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Abdillah Rafi liked this
ramesh sharma liked this
jkabasindi liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->