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Normal Maps

# Normal Maps

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Published by bomimod

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Published by: bomimod on Aug 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/21/2012

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1. Introduction
In this tutorial I will try to explain some techniques andshow you how to bake and create normal maps, whichbecome very popular in this days, specially in gameindustry.Software that I will use :- Zbrush 2 – for baking normal maps from high polymodels. Currently ver 3.1 of Zbrush is available, but thebaking techniques are the same as in the ver 2.0.For baking normal maps I will use a ZMAPPER plugin,which you can download for free from pixologic website- 3D studio max – this program I will use for modeling lowpoly models and UVW mapping. To do this you can useprogram whatever you want, because for baking purposewe will export the model to obj format.- Photoshop CS2 – I will use it for creating normal mapsand editing baked maps.
2. What are normal maps, and whatare their for?
The purpose of normal maps is to create an illusion of more complex geometry than it really is. Normal mappingdoesn’t affect the geometry of the low poly model, like thedisplacement maps do. So if our low poly model is verysimple and edgy, the normal map will not change it.Below you see a comparison of high poly model and asimple plane with normal map.This simple example shows how normal maps works.Now lets take a look on the normal map itself.The whole effect of normal maps lies in their RGB chan-
nels, specially in R and G channel, often dene as X and
Y in baking parameters. If the normal map doesn’t looklike it should be, when displayed in 3dsmax or other 3drendering (or real time) engines, the problem is in wronginterpretation of R and G channels by the engine. Some-
times you need to swap X and Y channel before baking
the map (you can also do this after baking in photoshop )
or invert the X or Y channel.
For baking normal maps we will use ZMapper, a freeZbrush plugin which have a lot of presets that will choosethe right parameters for us.
3. Tips for a good start
Before we started to create a high poly models with a lotof details, it is a good idea to do some planning ahead for our model. For example: if there will be some larger ele-ments, like big pockets, large muscles or larger materialwrinkles, we will get better results by adding some poly-gons in our low poly model, because like I said before,the normal map will not change our low poly geometry,and in some camera, angles things, like large muscles or
big pockets, will look very at.
That’s why it’s better to plan ahead before we started tosculpt our high poly model.The best solution in this case seams to be a detailedconcept art, or at least a simple sketch.Below you can see an example of low poly model, whichis a very simple geometry, but have some high poly geo-metry characteristics.

We need also to remember that the best normal mapis nothing without a good color map. That’s why normalmaps should be a nice addition to a color map, but nototherwise. The best effect we will achieve by perfect mat-ching color, normal and specular map.
Low poly geometry – things we must keep in mind
During creating low poly models, we often try to use asless triangles as possible, and we are simplifying someelements such as ears, horns, teeth etc. by using separa-te elements. Such lack of „cohesion” of the models leadsto numerous errors when burning the normal maps. Soit’s better to use more triangles, here and there, than later try to correct the normal maps in photoshop. Below you
can see how the simplied geometry inuence the normal
map. Both normal maps are baked from the same highpoly model using ZMapper (Zbrush plugin) and projectionmethod.A small baking errors we can eventually hide under thecolor map. However with larger elements it could be
difcult to hide.
There could be more of problematic places in our lowpoly models. For example - hands - tight places between
the ngers. We can avoid it by spreading out the ngers a
little bit, before exporting into Zbrush.Other problematic places : all kind of sharp ended conesor polygon spikes.

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