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Scheduling

# Scheduling

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Published by: muneerpp on Aug 26, 2009

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06/17/2010

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Unit 2
Management of Conversion System
Chapter 9: Project Scheduling

Lesson 27 –
Scheduling Project
Learning ObjectivesAfter reading this lesson you would be able to understand how to
Identify activity slack
Identify the critical activities and duration of the project

Find probability of completion of a project in a given time
A crucial aspect of project management is estimating the time of completion. If each activity in relocating the hospital (consideredin the previous lesson) were done in sequence, with work  proceeding on only one activity at a time, the time of completionwould equal the sum f the times for all the activities.
StartA12I
B
E24C10D10G35H40JFFinish

Figure 27.1
AON Network for the Metro Hospital Project showing activity times

However, Figure 27.1 indicates that some activities can be carriedon simultaneously given adequate resources. Each sequence of activities between the project’s start and finish is called a
path
.The network describing the hospital relocation project has five paths: A-I-K, A-F-K, A-C-G-J-K, B-D-H-J-K, and B-E-J-K. The
critical path
is the sequence of activities between a project’s startand finish that takes the longest time to complete. Thus, theactivities along the critical path determine the completion time of the project; that is, if one of the activities on the critical path isdelayed, the entire project will be delayed. The estimated times for he paths in the hospital project network aret Path EstimatedTime (wk)A-F-K 28A-I-K 33A-C-G-J-K 67B-D-H-J-K 69B-E-J-K 43The activity string B-D-H-J-K is estimated to take 69 weeks tocomplete. As the longest, it constitutes the critical path and isshown in bold in Figure 27.1.Because the critical path defines the completion time of the project, project team should focus on these activities. However, projects can have more than one critical path.Manually finding the critical path in this way is easy for small projects; however, computer must be used for large projects.Computers calculate activity slack and prepare periodic reports,enabling managers to monitor progress. Activity slack is themaximum length of time that an activity can be delayed withoutdelaying the entire project. Activities on the critical path have zeroslack. Constantly monitoring the progress of activities with little or no slack enables managers to identify activities that need to beexpedited to keep the project on schedule. Activity slack iscalculated from four times for each activity: earliest start time,earliest finish time, latest start time, and latest finish time.
Earliest start and finish time
The earliest start and finish times of an activity are based on thecondition that every activity will be started and finished as early as possible. The earliest start and earliest finish times are obtained asfollows.The
earliest finish time
(
EF
) of an activity equals its earliest starttime plus its estimated duration, t, or EF = ES + t.The
earliest start time
(
ES
) for an activity is the earliest finish

time of the immediately preceding activity. For activities withmore than one preceding activity, ES is the latest of the earliestfinish times of the preceding activities.To calculate the duration of the entire project, we determine the EFfor the last activity on the critical path.Calculations of the earliest start and finish times for the activitiesin the hospital project.We begin at the start node at time zero. Because activities A and Bhave no predecessors, the earliest start times for these activities arealso zero. The earliest finish times for these activities areEF
A
= 0 + 12 = 12 and EF
B
= 0 + 9 = 9Because the earliest start time for activities I, F, and C is theearliest finish time of activity A,ES
I
= 12, ES
F
= 12, ES
C
= 12Similarly, ES
D
= 9 and ES
E
= 9After placing these ES values on the network diagram as shown inFigure 27.2, we determine the EF times for activities I, F, C, D,and E;EF
I
= 12 + 15 = 27, EF
F
= 12 + 10 = 22, EF
C
= 12 + 10 = 22EF
D
= 9 + 10 = 19, and EF
E
= 9 + 24 = 33The earliest start time for activity G is the latest EF time of allimmediately preceding activities. Thus,ES
G
= EF
C
= 22, ES
H
= EF
D
= 19,EF
G
= ES
G
+ t = 22 + 35 = 57 ,EF
H
= ES
H
+ t = 19 + 40 = 59

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