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All Japanese Auxiliary Verbs

All Japanese Auxiliary Verbs

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Published by Suimaru-Kun
It's a complte list of the auxiliary verbs in Japanese.
Easy to understand and easy to learn.
It's a complte list of the auxiliary verbs in Japanese.
Easy to understand and easy to learn.

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Published by: Suimaru-Kun on Aug 26, 2009
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09/09/2014

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 Auxiliary verbs
 All auxiliary verbs attach to a verbal or adjectivalstem formand conjugate as verbs, butthey differ from normal verbs in having no independent meaning. In modern Japanese thereare two distinct classes of auxiliary verbs:Pure auxiliaries (
助動詞
 
 jodōshi 
)are usually just called
verb endings
or
conjugated forms
. These auxiliaries cannotpossibly function as an independent verb.Helper auxiliaries (
補助動詞
 
hododōshi 
)are normal verbs that lose their independent meaning when used as auxiliaries.In classical Japanese which was more purely agglutinating than modern Japanese, thecategory of 
auxiliary verb
included every possible verb ending after the stem form, andmost of these endings were themselves active participants in composition. In modernJapanese, however, some auxiliaries have stopped being productive. The most classicexample is the classical auxiliary
たり
 
(
-tari 
) whose forms
 
(
-ta
),
 
(
-te
), etc. are now nolonger viewed as verbal endings,
i.e.
, they can take no further affixes.
some pure auxiliary verbs
auxiliary group attaches to meaning modification example
ます
(
masu
)1continuativemakes V polite
書く
 
(
kaku
, to write)
 
書きま
 
(
kakimasu
)
られる
(
rareru
)
1
 
(
ru
)2bcont. of grp.2hyp. of grp.1makes Vpassive/polite/potential
見る
 
(
miru
, to see)
 
見られる
(
mirareru
, to be able to see)
増える
 
(
fueru
, to increae)
 
えられる
 
(
fuerareru
, to havethe ability to increase)
飲む
 
(
nomu
, to drink/swallow)
 
飲める
 
(
nomeru
, to be ableto drink)
させる
(
saseru
)
2
せる
 
(
seru
)2bcont. of grp.2imperf. of grp. 1makes V causative
考える
 
(
kangaeru
, to think)
考えさせる
 
(
kangaesaseru
, tocause to think)
思い知る
 
(
omoishiru
, to realize)
 
思い知らせる
 
(
omoishiraseru
,to cause to realize/to teach alesson)
1
 
られる
 
(
rareru
) is often shortened to
れる
 
(
reru
, grp. 2); thus
食べれる
 
(
tabereru
, tobe able to eat) instead of 
食べられる
 
(
taberareru
).
2
 
させる
 
(
saseru
) is sometimes shortened to
さす
 
(
sasu
, grp. 1), but this usage issomewhat literary.Much of the agglutinative flavour of Japanese stems from helper auxiliaries, however. Thefollowing table contains a small selection of an abundant store of such auxiliary verbs.
 
some helper auxiliary verbs
auxiliary group attaches tomeaningmodificationexample
ある
 
(
aru
, to be(inanimate))1
-te
formonly for trans.indicates statemodification
開く
 
(
aku
, to open)
 
いてある
 
(
aite-aru
,opened and is still open)
いる
 
(
iru
, to be(animate))2a
-te
formfor trans.progressiveaspect
寝る
 
(
neru
, to sleep)
寝ている
 
(
nete-iru
, issleeping)2a
-te
formfor intrans.indicates statemodification
閉まる
 
(
shimaru
,(intransitive) to close)
閉まっている
 
(
shimatte-iru
, is closed)
いく
 
(
iku
, to go)1
-te
form"goes on V-ing"
歩く
 
(
aruku
, to walk)
歩いていく
 
(
aruite-iku
,keep walking)
くる
 
(
kuru
, to come)
ka -te
forminception, "startto V"
なる
 
(
naru
, become)
なってくる
 
(
natte-kuru
,start becoming)
始める
 
(
hajimeru
, tobegin)2bcontinuativenon-punctualcontinuativepunctual & subj. must beplural"V begins","begin to V"
書く
 
(
kaku
, to write)
書き始める
 
(
kaki-hajimeru
, start to write)
着く
 
(
tsuku
, to arrive)
着き始める
 
(
tsuki-hajimeru
, have allstarted to arrive)
出す
 
(
dasu
, to emit)1continuative"start to V"
輝く
 
(
kagayaku
, toshine)
 
輝き出す
(
kagayaki-dasu
, to startshining)
 
みる
 
(
miru
, to see)1
-te
form"try to V"
する
 
(
suru
, do)
 
してみたい
 
(
shite-mitai 
, try todo)
なおす
 
(
naosu
, tocorrect/heal)1continuative"do V again,correctingmistakes"
書く
 
(
kaku
, to write)
書きなおす
 
(
kaki-naosu
,rewrite)
あがる
 
(
agaru
, to rise)1continuative"do V thoroughly" / "V happensupwards"
立つ
 
(
tatsu
, to stand)
立ち上がる
 
(
tachi-agaru
,stand up)
出来る
 
(
dekiru
, to comeout)
 
出来上がる
 
(
deki-agaru
, be completed)
得る
 
(
eru
 /
uru
, to beable)2b/1continuativeonly for group1 verbsindicatespotential
ある
 
(
aru
, to be)
 
あり得る
 
(
arieru
, is possible)
かかる
 
(
kakaru
, tohang/catch/obtain)1continuativeonly forintrans., non-volit."about to V","almost V"
溺れる
 
(
oboreru
, drown)
 
溺れかかる
 
(
obore-kakaru
, about to drown)
きる
 
(
kiru
, to cut)1continuative"do Vcompletely"
食べる
 
(
taberu
, to eat)
食べきる
 
(
tabe-kiru
, toeat it all)
消す
 
(
kesu
, to erase)1continuative"cancel by V""deny with V"
揉む
 
(
momu
, to rub)
揉み消す
 
(
momi-kesu
, torub out, to extinguish)
込む
 
(
komu
, to enterdeeply/plunge)1continuative"V deep in", "Vinto"
話す
 
(
hanasu
, to speak)
 
話し込む
 
(
hanashi-komu
, to be deep inconversation)
下げる
 
(
sageru
, tolower)2bcontinuative"V down"
引く
 
(
hiku
, to pull)
 
き下げる
 
(
hiki-sageru
, topull down)
過ぎる
 
(
sugiru
, toexceed)2acontinuative"overdo V"
言う
 
(
iu
, to say)
 
言いすぎる
 
(
ii-sugiru
, to say toomuch, to overstate)
付ける
 
(
tsukeru
, toattach)2bcontinuative"becomeaccustomed to V"
行く
 
(
iku
, to go)
 
行き付ける
 
(
iki-tsukeru
, beused to (going))
続ける
 
(
tsuzukeru
, tocontinue)2bcontinuative"keep on V"
降る
 
(
furu
, to fall (eg.rain))
 
降り続ける
 
(
furi-tsuzukeru
, to keepfalling)
通す
 
(
tōsu
, toshow/thread/lead)1continuative"finish V-ing"
読む
 
(
yomu
, to read)
読み通す
 
(
yomi-tōsu
, to

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