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Water Pollution

Water Pollution

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Published by: arifeen_091 on Aug 26, 2009
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09/24/2012

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Prelude
Water
is composed of hydrogenand oxygen, that is essential for thesurvival  of many known forms olife. In typical usage, water refers only toitsliquidform orstate, but the substance also has asolidstate,ice, and agaseousstate,water vapororsteam. Water covers 71% of theEarth's surface. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies,with 1.6% of water below ground inaquifersand 0.001% in theair  asvapor,clouds(formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air).Oceanshold 97% of surface water and other land surface water suchasrivers, lakes andponds0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Water movescontinually through acycleof evaporationreaching thesea. Clean, freshdrinking wateris essential tohumanand other life forms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the lastdecades in almost every part of the world. There is a clear correlationbetween access to safe water andGDPper capita. However, some observershave estimated that by 2025 more than half of theworld populationwill befacing water-based vulnerability. Water plays an important role in theworld economy, as it functions as asolventfor a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation.Approximately 70 percent of freshwateris consumed byagriculture.
Water Pollution
Water pollution is the contamination of waterbodies such aslakes,rivers, oceans, and groundwater. All water pollution affects organisms and plantsthat live in thesewater bodiesand in almost all cases the effect is damagingeither to individualspeciesand populations but also to the natural biologicalcommunities. It occurs whenpollutantsare discharged directly or indirectlyinto water bodies without adequatetreatmentto remove harmful
 
constituents. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it does notsupport a human use, like serving asdrinking water, and lose its ability tosupport its biotic communities, such asfish. Natural phenomena suchasvolcanoes,algae blooms,storms, andearthquakesalso cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. Water pollutionhas many causes and characteristics.Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed asseparate resources, although they are interrelated. Sources of surface waterpollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin.
Point source pollutionrefers to contaminants that enter a waterway througha discrete conveyance, such as apipeorditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from asewage treatmentplant, afactory, or a citystorm drain.
Non-point sourcepollution refers to diffuse contamination that does notoriginate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often accumulativeeffect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. Theleaching out of nitrogen compounds from agricultural land which has beenfertilized is a typical example. Nutrientrun off instorm waterfrom "sheet flow" over anagricultural fieldor aforestare also cited as examples of NPS pollution.
Water Pollution in Dhaka City
Water pollution in Dhaka watershed has reached alarming levels and isposing significant threats to health and economic activity, particularly amongthe poor and vulnerable.With all the frequent power outages, horrendoustraffic jams and the like already complicating life in the city, the shortage of 
 
water promises to create new nightmares for everyone. In most large cityareas -- notably Rampura, Kalyanpur, Shekher Tek and Mohammadpur andold Dhaka -- citizens have been suffering from lack of water for the pastseveral days. Scarcity of water is so acute in several areas that residents arenow thinking of leaving those places. The problem has become acute due toinadequate water supply and contaminated water. A number of residents arenow using contaminated water as the special supply of water by the WaterSupply and Sewerage Authority (WASA) is not enough. People facing thecrisis claimed the water supply by the WASA Lorries hardly fulfills their dailydemand.Rice productivity in the watershed area, for example, has declinedby 40% in recent years and vegetable cultivation in the riverbeds has beenseverely damaged. Its also found significant correlation between waterpollution and diseases such as jaundice, diarrhoea and skin problems.
The causes of water pollution in Dhaka city
:
Excessive rainfall
Population growth and unplanned development
Waste management system
Encroachment
Capacity and gravity of drainage system
Drainage management system
Development works during rainy season
Storage of construction materials
Lack of public awareness
Lack of regulations and its implementation
Effects
:

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