means that a duty is carried out with waste and damage becauseof ignorance, negligence and technical incompetence.
occurs when a duty is undertaken beyond what law and customoblige empower---it may occur out of dictatorial temper, vanity or genuinepublic spirited zeal.The public officials must be held accountable for any of these three activities.
TOOLS OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACCOUNTABILITY
It is necessary and essential in the interest of democracy as well as efficiencyand effectiveness that good and proper tools or controls to check civil servantsmust be devised, generally controls are of two types –
. According to Prof. Finer, the best way to enforce accountability is todevelop institutions that vigorously monitor the actions of public bureaucracyand punish those guilty of maladministration. In the absence of other controls,such as profit motive, policy makers must monitor the performance of publicadministrators via formal mechanisms.
Among the two controls executives responsibility to the legislature, legislativesurveillance, judicial review, audit system, financial advisory system inministries, judicial system, ombudsman etc. are examples of
controls of formal type are secured throughorganizational devices like hierarchy supervision, control, span of control, unityof command, inspection, tours etc. These are in practice, reinforced andsupplemented by informal external devices such as mass media, politicalparties, interest groups, political and electoral process, Comptroller andAuditor General (CAG) etc. existing in the society. Beside this on the otherhand, Carl Friedrich opines that inculcation of appropriate values amongadministrators serves as the major check on the bureaucracy.
Forms of accountability :
Accountability although has many facetsbut they are inter-related. It may be formal i.e. institutionalized or informali.e. democratic and ethical. Accountability may also take the forms likepolitical accountability, administrative accountability, legislativeaccountability, judicial accountability etc.
Ways to ensure accountability :
In addition to the formalstructures and informal modes prevalent in different nations to enforce