Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
10 - Megilah

10 - Megilah

Ratings:
(0)
|Views: 64|Likes:
Published by bgeller4936

More info:

Published by: bgeller4936 on Aug 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Talmud - Mas. Megilah 2a
 
Talmud - Mas. Megilah 2a
C H A P T E R I MISHNAH. THE MEGILLAH
 
1
IS READ ON THE ELEVENTH, THE TWELFTH, THETHIRTEENTH, THE FOURTEENTH, AND THE FIFTEENTH [OF ADAR], NEVER EARLIERAND NEVER LATER.
2
CITIES
3
WHICH HAVE BEEN WALLED SINCE THE DAYS OFJOSHUA SON OF NUN
4
READ ON THE FIFTEENTH; VILLAGES AND LARGE TOWNS
5
READ ON THE FOURTEENTH. THE VILLAGES, HOWEVER, MAY [SOMETIMES] PUSHTHE READING FORWARD TO THE COURT DAY.
6
HOW DOES THIS WORK OUT? IF [THEFOURTEENTH OF ADAR] FALLS ON MONDAY,
7
THE VILLAGES AND LARGE TOWNSREAD ON THAT DAY AND THE WALLED PLACES ON THE NEXT DAY: IF IT FALLS ONTUESDAY OR ON WEDNESDAY, THE VILLAGES PUSH THE READING FORWARD TOTHE COURT DAY,
8
THE LARGE TOWNS READ ON THE DAY ITSELF, AND THE WALLEDPLACES ON THE NEXT DAY. IF [THE FOURTEENTH FALLS] ON THURSDAY, THEVILLAGES AND LARGE TOWNS READ ON THAT DAY AND THE WALLED PLACES ONTHE NEXT DAY: IF IT FALLS ON FRIDAY, THE VILLAGES PUSH THE READINGFORWARD TO THE COURT DAY
9
AND THE LARGE TOWNS AND WALLED PLACESREAD ON THE DAY ITSELF.
10
IF IT FALLS ON SABBATH, THE VILLAGES AND LARGETOWNS PUSH THE READING FORWARD TO THE COURT DAY.
9
AND THE WALLEDPLACES READ ON THE NEXT DAY.
11
IF IT FALLS ON SUNDAY, THE VILLAGES PUSHTHE READING FORWARD TO THE COURT DAY,
9
THE LARGE TOWNS READ ON THESAME DAY, AND THE WALLED CITIES ON THE DAY FOLLOWING. GEMARA. THE MEGILLAH IS READ ON THE ELEVENTH. Whence is this derived? — [Howcan you ask,] ‘Whence is this derived’? Surely it is as we state further on,
12
‘The Sages made aconcession to the villages, allowing them to push the reading forward to the Court day, so that [theyshould have leisure to] supply food and water for their brethren in the large towns’? — What wemean [by our question] is this: Let us see now. All these dates were laid down by the Men of theGreat Assembly.
13
For if you should [deny this and affirm] that the Men of the Great Assembly laiddown only the fourteenth and fifteenth, [is it possible that] the [later] Rabbis should have come andannulled a regulation made by the Men of the Great Assembly, seeing that we have learnt, ‘One Bethdin cannot annul the ordinances of another unless it is superior to it in number
14
and in wisdom’?
15
Obviously, therefore, all these days must have been laid down by the Men of the Great Assembly,[and we ask therefore], where are they hinted [in the Scripture]? — R. Shaman b. Abba replied in thename of R. Johanan: Scripture says, To confirm these days of Purim in their times.
16
[whichindicates that] they laid down many ‘times’ for them. But this text is required for its literalmeaning?
17
— If that were all, Scripture could say simply ‘at the [appointed] time’. What then isimplied by ‘their times’? A large number of ‘times’! But still I may say that [the expression ‘their’times’] is required to indicate that the time of one is not the same as the time of the other?
18
Inthat case, Scripture should say [simply], ‘their time’. Why does it say ‘their times’? So that you mayinfer from this all of them. But cannot I say that ‘their times’ means ‘numerous times’?
19
— Theexpression ‘their times’ is to be interpreted in the same way as we should interpret ‘their time’: justas ‘their time’ would indicate two [days], so ‘their times’ indicates two [in addition].
20
But why notmake these the twelfth and thirteenth? — For the reason given [elsewhere] by R. Samuel b. Isaac,that the thirteenth is a time of assembly for all,
21
and no special indication is required for it in thetext; so we may say here that the thirteenth day is a time of assembly and no special indication isrequired for it in the text. But why not say that the sixteenth and seventeenth are meant? — It iswritten, and it shall not pass.
22
 R. Samuel b. Nahmani, however, explained thus. Scripture says. As the days wherein the Jews hadrest from their enemies.
23
[The expression] ‘the days’ [would have sufficed] and we have ‘as the
 
days’, to include the eleventh and the twelfth. But cannot I say rather the twelfth and thirteenth? —R. Samuel b. Isaac said: The thirteenth is a time of assembly for all, and does not require specialindication. But cannot I say the sixteenth and the seventeenth? — It is written, ‘and it shall not pass’. Why did R. Samuel b. Nahmani not derive the rule from the expression ‘in their times’? — Hedoes not accept the distinction [made above between] ‘time’, ‘their time’ and ‘their times’. And whydid R. Shaman b. Abba not derive the rule from the expression ‘as the days’? — He can say to you:This is meant to make the rule apply to future generations. Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said in the name of R. Johanan: This [rule stated in the Mishnah] is theruling of R. Akiba the anonymous authority,
24
who draws the distinction between ‘time’, ‘their time’and ‘their times’, but according to the Sages the Megillah is to be read only on the proper day.
25
Thefollowing was adduced in refutation of this: ‘R. Judah said, When does this rule hold good? Whenthe years are properly fixed
26
and Israel reside upon their own soil. But in these days, since peoplereckon from it,
27
the Megillah is to be read only on the proper day’. Now which authority is R. Judahhere following? Shall I say, R. Akiba? This cannot be, because [according to him] the regulation
28
isin force in these days also. It must be then that he follows the Rabbis, and [even according to them]we read [on the other days] at any rate when the years are properly fixed and Israel reside on theirown soil! Is not this a refutation of R. Johanan? — It is. Some report as follows. Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said in the name of R. Johanan: This rule followsthe ruling of R. Akiba the anonymous authority, but the Sages held that in these days, since peoplereckon from it, we read it only on the proper day. It has been taught to the same effect: ‘R. Judahsaid: When does this rule hold good? When the years are properly fixed and Israel reside upon theirown soil, but in these days, since people reckon from it, it is read only on the proper day.’
29
 R. Ashi noted a contradiction between two statements of R. Judah____________________
(1)
Lit., ‘scroll’. The scroll of the Book of Esther is meant (v. Introduction).
(2)
Lit., ‘neither less nor more’.
(3)
ihfrf
(Sing.
 lrf
). This word is generally applied to large centres of population with a more or less metropolitancharacter. In Mishnah Megillah, (cf. 19a), however, it seems to be used exclusively of walled towns, whatever their size.
(4)
The Gemara infra discusses what is meant by this.
(5)
,ukusd ,urhhgu ohrpf
. The expression ‘villages and large towns’ in the Mishnah here seems to be merely aperiphrasis for ‘other places’, since, as appears from the Gemara, the distinction here is between places which werewalled in the days of Joshua and places which were not. The epithet ‘large’ is added because the word
rhg
(or
vrhg
)is also often used of a small place, hardly distinguishable from a village.
(6)
Lit., ‘the day of assembly’, i.e. Monday or Thursday, when the Beth din sat in the towns, and the people came infrom the villages. They were allowed to read the Megillah then because they were more likely to find someone whocould read to them in the town than in their own village (Rashi). Another reason is also given in the Gemara infra.
(7)
Lit., ‘the second (day of the week)’. In the Talmud the days of the week are distinguished by the ordinal numbers.
(8)
I.e., the previous Monday.
(9)
I.e., the preceding Thursday.
(10)
Reading on the Sabbath was prohibited, for fear the scroll might be carried from place to place. V. infra.
(11)
On the Sunday.
(12)
V. infra p. 116.
(13)
Or ‘synagogue’. A name given to Ezra and his Beth din and their successors, up to the time of Simon the Just. V.Aboth, Sonc. ed. p. 1, n. 5. According to the Talmud, the Book of Esther was composed by or under the direction of theMen of the Great Assembly.
(14)
Of the members of the Beth din.
(15)
Cf. M.K. 3b; Git. 36a.
(16)
Esth. IX, 31. E.V. ‘their appointed times’. The plural form ‘times’ is stressed.
 
(17)
Lit., ‘for itself’; viz., the 14th and 15th mentioned in the text.
(18)
Viz., the time for the villages is not the same as that for the walled towns.
(19)
E.g., five or six.
(20)
To the fourteenth and fifteenth, viz., the eleventh and twelfth.
(21)
Rashi explains this to refer to the statement in the Scripture that on the thirteenth the Jews assembled and defendedthemselves. Asheri, however, points out that this has nothing to do with the reading of the Megillah, which was institutedto commemorate the resting, and he therefore prefers the explanation of R. Tam, that on the thirteenth the Jews assembleto observe the fast of Esther.
(22)
Ibid. 27. These words are interpreted to mean, ‘the observance shall not pass beyond the fifteenth day’. E.V., and itshall not fail.
(23)
Ibid. 22.
(24)
So called because Rabbi in compiling the Mishnah usually followed R Akiba when he mentioned no authority.
(25)
Viz., the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar.
(26)
I.e., when there is a Beth din which fixes new moons and leap years as occasion arises.
(27)
I.e. count thirty days from Purim to Passover, since the new moon of Nisan will not be promulgated by the Beth din
(28)
That the Megillah may be read on the eleventh, twelfth, or thirteenth.
(29)
And there is now no contradiction between R. Johanan and Rabbi Judah.
Talmud - Mas. Megilah 2b
 
Talmud - Mas. Megilah 2b
 
Talmud - Mas. Megilah 2b
, and therefore attributed the statement in the Baraitha to R. Jose son of R. Judah. [He said]: Can R.Judah really have said that in these days, since people reckon from it, it is read only on the properday? To this may be opposed the following:
1
R. Judah said, When [do they push forward thereading]? In places where the villagers go to town
2
on Monday and Thursday; but in places wherethey do not go to town on Monday and Thursday, it is read only on the proper day. But at any rate inplaces where they do go to town on Monday and Thursday it is read [on the earlier dates] even inthese times’? He accordingly ascribed the statement in the Baraitha
3
to R. Jose son of R. Judah. Andbecause he finds a contradiction between two statements of R. Judah, is he entitled to ascribe the onein the Baraitha to R. Jose son of R. Judah? — R. Ashi had heard some report the statement in thename of R. Judah and some report it in the name of R. Jose son of R. Judah, and to avoid making R.Judah contradict himself he said that the one who ascribed the statement to R. Judah was not[reporting] accurately, while the one who ascribed it to R. Jose son of Judah was [reporting]accurately. CITIES WHICH HAVE BEEN WALLED SINCE THE DAYS OF JOSHUA SON OF NUNREAD ON THE FIFTEENTH. Whence is this ruling derived? — Raba replied: Because Scripturesays, Therefore do the Jews of the villages that dwell in the unwalled towns,
4
etc. Since the villages[are to read] on the fourteenth, the walled towns [must read] on the fifteenth. But why not say thatthe villages [should read] on the fourteenth, and those in walled towns not at all?
5
— But are theynot also Israelites? And moreover is it not written, From India into Ethiopia?
6
But why not say thatthe villages [should read] on the fourteenth and those in walled towns on both the fourteenth andfifteenth, as it is written, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and thefifteenth day of the same yearly?
7
— If the text had said, ‘the fourteenth day and [we] the fifteenth’,you would have been right. Now, however, that it is written ‘the fourteenth day and [we-eth] thefifteenth — the eth
8
comes and makes a distinction, so that the one set is on the fourteenth and theother set on the fifteenth. But why not say that the villages are on the fourteenth, and thosesurrounded [by a wall] can [celebrate] if they like on the fourteenth or if they like on the fifteenth?— The text says, in their seasons,
9
the season of one is not the same as the season of the other. Butwhy not say that they
10
should celebrate on the thirteenth? — [They must do] as Susa [did]. We have accounted for the celebration [of Purim]; how do we know that the recital
 
11
[of theMegillah must be on these days]? — The text says, that these days should be remembered and

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->