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Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

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Published by MASII
Case study on URTI
Case study on URTI

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Published by: MASII on Aug 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Liceo de Cagayan UniversityCollege of Nursing
Individual Care Study
Name of ClientSubmitted to:
Submitted by:
Group B7 – Cluster 2
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a nonspecific term used todescribe acute infections involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx,trachea, and bronchi. The prototype is the illness known as the common cold,which will be discussed here, in addition to pharyngitis, sinusitis, andtracheobronchitis. Influenza is a systemic illness that involves the upper respiratory tract and should be differentiated from other URIs.Viruses cause most URIs, with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus,coronavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, coxsackievirus, and influenzavirus accounting for most cases.
Human metapneumovirus is a newly discoveredagent causing URIs. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) cause 5% to10% of cases of pharyngitis in adults.
Other less common causes of bacterialpharyngitis include group C beta-hemolytic streptococci,
Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae
, and herpes simplex virus.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae
, and
Moraxella catarrhalis
are the most common organisms that cause the bacterial superinfection of viralacute sinusitis.
Less than 10% of cases of acute tracheobronchitis are caused by
Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, M. pneumoniae
, or 
C. pneumoniae
Most URIs occurs more frequently during the cold winter months, becauseof overcrowding. Adults develop an average of two to four colds annually.Antigenic variation of hundreds of respiratory viruses results in repeatedcirculation in the community. A coryza syndrome is by far the most commoncause of physician visits in the United States.
Acute pharyngitis accounts for 1%to 2% of all visits to outpatient and emergency departments, resulting in 7 millionannual visits by adults alone.
Acute bacterial sinusitis develops in 0.5% to 2% of cases of viral URIs.
Approximately 20 million cases of acute sinusitis occur annually in the United States. About 12 million individuals are diagnosed withacute tracheobronchitis annually, accounting for one third of patients presenting
with acute cough.
The estimated economic impact of non–influenza-related URIsis $40 billion annually.
Influenza epidemics occur every year between November and March inthe Northern Hemisphere. Approximately two thirds of those infected withinfluenza virus exhibit clinical illness, 25 million seek health care, 100,000 to200,000 require hospitalization, and 40,000 to 60,000 die each year as a result of related complications.
The average cost of each influenza epidemic is $12million, including the direct cost of medical care and indirect cost resulting fromlost work days. Pandemics in the 20th century claimed the lives of more than 21million people. A widespread H5N1 pandemic in birds is ongoing, with threats of a human pandemic. It is projected that such a pandemic would cost the UnitedStates $70 to $160 billion.
This individual case study provides goals or objectives which can be used as aninstrument in assessing the patient’s health status and in his present conditions:1. Use to obtain a complete heath data and can be used in follow up care.2. Impart knowledge by conducting health teaching about the necessaryinformation pertaining in the disease condition.3. Understands the course and essence of the chosen care study.

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