31553rd Annual Convention
Baton Rouge, Louisianaelly sand, and sand containing beds of silt, clay, and mud. Typically, the beds are of limited verticaland lateral extent. According to Campbell (1971), the thickness of the Citronelle Formation is about300 to 350 ft (91 to 107 m) within the vicinity of the Brushy Creek feature.Locally, the Citronelle Formation consists of cross-bedded, massive, poorly sorted fine to coarsesand underlain by laminated clay and silt. Field investigations indicate that the sand consists of 30to 40 ft (9 to 12 m) of deeply weathered, reddish brown, fine to coarse, poorly sorted sand. In out-crops, the sand is typically massive. However, in an exposure on the edge of the Brushy Creek feature, locality 16SHPC, the Citronelle Formation is cross-bedded. As exposed in a Kentwood Brick and Tile Company brick pit immediately east of the Brushy Creek feature, at least 20 ft (6 m) of laminated silts and clays underlie these sands. These silts and clays consist of cyclic beds of meter-thick laminated silt that grades upward into laminated clay. Discussions with the staff of theKentwood Brick and Tile Company indicate that in their explorations for brick clay, they found thelaminated clays and silts to be absent in holes drilled within the interior of the Brushy Creek feature but present within holes drilled outside of its rim. Very little is known about the sediments underly-ing the laminated silt and clay beds.As classified by Folk (1980), the sand fraction of the Citronelle Formation varies regionally incomposition from quartzarenites to sublitharenites. The sand-size fraction consists of 90 to 97percent quartz. The remaining 3 to 10 percent consists of chert, quartzite, iron oxide, and heavyminerals. Feldspar is absent from both the sand and gravel fractions. The gravel consists largely of chert with lesser amounts of quartz, quartzite, and ironstone (Campbell, 1971).Underlying the Citronelle Formation are 6 to 7 miles (about 10 to 11 km) of Cenozoic to Meso-zoic sedimentary strata overlying continental crust stretched by the opening of the Gulf of Mexico(Sawyer et al., 1991). Within the area of the Brushy Creek feature, the upper 11,000 to 12,000 ft (3,350to 3,660 m) consist of Cenozoic sediments of the Midway, Wilcox, Claiborne, Jackson, and Vicksburggroups and undifferentiated, largely siliciclastic, Neogene strata. Within St. Helena Parish, thesestrata dip homoclinally to the southwest lacking indication of any major faulting or salt tectonics inthe vicinity of the Brushy Creek feature (Howe, 1962; Bebout and Gutiérrez, 1983).
An examination was made of the entire Brushy Creek feature with emphasis on the northernthird of the feature. The examination of the feature consisted of the description of exposures, exami-nation of gravel found in streams draining the feature, and collection of samples from such loca-tions.Only one exposure, the Gehee Section, locality 16SHPC, revealed a complete section of the distalrim of this feature. This exposure consists of an upper bed of 7 to 10 ft (2 to 3 m) of massive siltysand and sandy silt. At about 5 ft (1.5 m) below the surface, a zone about 8 in (20 cm) thick containsrounded, dime-size clasts of purple silty clay floating within a silty sand matrix. The purple color of the silty clay clasts indicates that they came from the Citronelle Formation. Developed within theupper part of the silty sand is the profile of the modern soil with pronounced A and B horizons. Atthe base of the sandy silt and lying directly on the underlying Citronelle Formation, the exposurecontains a 5 to 12 in (13 to 30 cm) thick gravelly mud containing abundant rounded clasts com-posed of mud, clay, and ironstone nodules. At this time, it is difficult to determine the origin of this bed. Within the Gehee Section, the gravelly mud bed overlies highly fractured and cross-beddedsand of the Citronelle Formation exposed within a ditch. It is deeply weathered saprolite. This unitis highly oxidized and shows well-developed gleying of the sand along abundant fractures and rootmolds. The Gehee Section is the only known exposure in which the Citronelle Formation is highlyfractured.Samples were collected from locations within the Brushy Creek feature. North of and adjacentto Louisiana State Highway 37, samples of the sediment composing the rim of the Brushy Creek feature were collected from surface exposures at localities 16SHPC, 16SHPD, and 16SHPT, and froman auger hole, locality 16SHPL. Within this auger hole, samples were taken at depths of 1.5, 3, and