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06/21/2012

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1Bureau of Energy Efficiency
1.ENERGYSCENARIO
SyllabusEnergy Scenario:
Commercial and Non-Commercial Energy, Primary Energy Resources,Commercial Energy Production, Final Energy Consumption, Energy Needs of GrowingEconomy, Long Term Energy Scenario, Energy Pricing, Energy Sector Reforms, Energyand Environment: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Energy Security, Energy Conservationand its Importance, Energy Strategy for the Future, Energy Conservation Act-2001 and itsFeatures.
1.1 Introduction
Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any country. In the case of the developing countries, the energy sector assumes a critical importance in view of the ever-increasing energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them.Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria:Primary and Secondary energyCommercial and Non commercial energyRenewable and Non-Renewable energy
1.2 Primary and Secondary Energy
Primary energy sources arethose that are either found orstored in nature. Common pri-mary energy sources are coal,oil, natural gas, and biomass(such as wood). Other primaryenergy sources availableinclude nuclear energy fromradioactive substances, thermalenergy stored in earth's interi-or, and potential energy due toearth's gravity. The major pri-mary and secondary energysources are shown in Figure 1.1Primary energy sources aremostly converted in industrialutilities into secondary energysources; for example coal, oilor gas converted into steam
Figure 1.1MajorPrimary and Secondary Sources
 
1.Energy Scenario2Bureau of Energy Efficiency
and electricity. Primary energy can also be used directly. Some energy sources have non-ener-gy uses, for example coal or natural gas can be used as a feedstock in fertiliser plants.
1.3Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy
Commercial Energy
The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known as commer-cial energy. By far the most important forms of commercial energy are electricity, coal andrefined petroleum products. Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial, agricultural,transport and commercial development in the modern world. In the industrialized countries,commercialized fuels are predominant source not only for economic production, but also formany household tasks of general population.Examples: Electricity, lignite, coal, oil, natural gas etc.
Non-Commercial Energy
The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are classified asnon-commercial energy. Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as firewood, cattledung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally gathered, and not bought at a price usedespecially in rural households. These are also called traditional fuels. Non-commercial energyis often ignored in energy accounting.Example: Firewood, agro waste in rural areas; solar energy for water heating, electricitygeneration, for drying grain, fish and fruits; animal power for transport, threshing, lifting waterfor irrigation, crushing sugarcane; wind energy for lifting water and electricity generation.
1.4Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible. Examplesof renewable resources include wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power andhydroelectric power (See Figure 1.2). The most important feature of renewable energy is that itcan be harnessed without the release of harmful pollutants.Non-renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, which arelikely to deplete with time.
Figure 1.2Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy
 
1.Energy Scenario3Bureau of Energy Efficiency
1.5 Global Primary Energy Reserves*
Coal
The proven global coal reserve was estimated to be 9,84,453 milliontonnes by end of 2003. The USAhad the largest share of the globalreserve (25.4%) followed by Russia (15.9%), China (11.6%). Indiawas 4
th
in the list with 8.6%.
Oil
The global proven oil reserve was estimated to be 1147 billion barrels by the end of 2003. SaudiArabia had the largest share of the reserve with almost 23%.(One barrel of oil is approximately 160 litres)
Gas
The global proven gas reserve was estimated to be 176 trillion cubic metresby the end of 2003. The Russian Federation had the largest share of thereserve with almost 27%.(*Source: BPStatistical Review of World Energy, June 2004)
World oil and gas reserves are estimated at just 45 years and 65years respectively. Coal is likely to last a little over200 years
Global Primary Energy Consumption
The global primary energy consumption at the end of 2003 was equivalent to 9741 milliontonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). The Figure 1.3 shows in what proportions the sources men-tioned above contributed to this global figure.
Figure 1.3 Global Primary Energy Consumption

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