Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Chap 02 Real Analysis: Sequences and Series

# Chap 02 Real Analysis: Sequences and Series

Ratings:

4.0

(1)
|Views: 4,904|Likes:

### Availability:

See more
See less

08/10/2013

pdf

text

original

Sequence
A sequence is a function whose domain of definition is the set of naturalnumbers.Or it can also be defined as an ordered set.
Notation:
An infinite sequence is denoted as
1
{}
nn
S
=
or
{ }
:
n
S n
¥
or
{ }
123
,,,...........
S S S
or simply as
{ }
n
S
e.g. i)
{ } { }
1,2,3,..........
n
=
ii)1111,,,...............23
n
=
iii)
{ }
{ }
1
(1)1,1,1,1,.............
n
+
=

Subsequence
It is a sequence whose terms are contained in given sequence.A subsequence of
1
{}
nn
S
=
is usually written as {}
n
S
.
Increasing Sequence
A sequence
{ }
n
S
is said to be an increasing sequence if
1
1
n n
S S n
+
.
Decreasing Sequence
A sequence
{ }
n
S
is said to be an decreasing sequence if
1
1
n n
S S n
+
.
Monotonic Sequence
A sequence
{ }
n
S
is said to be monotonic sequence if it is either increasing ordecreasing.
{ }
n
S
is monotonically increasing if
1
0
n n
S S
+
or
1
1
nn
SS
+
, 1
n

{ }
n
S
is monotonically decreasing if
1
0
n n
S S
+
or
1
1
nn
SS
+
, 1
n

Strictly Increasing or Decreasing
{ }
n
S
is called strictly increasing or decreasing according as
1
n n
S S
+
>
or
1
n n
S S
+
<
1
n
.
Bernoulli’s Inequality
Let
p
¡
, 1
p
≥ −
and 0
p
then for
2
n
we have
( )
11
n
p np
+ > +

Proof:
We shall use mathematical induction to prove this inequality.If
n
= 2
L.H.S

22
(1)12
p p p
= + = + +

R.H.S
12
p
= +
....
L H S R H S
>

Chapter 2 – Sequences and Series
Subject:
Real Analysis
Level:
M.Sc.
Source:
Syed Gul Shah (Chairman, Department of Mathematics, UoS Sargodha)
Collected & Composed by:

Sequences and Series
- 2 -
i.e. condition
I
of mathematical induction is satisfied.Suppose
( )
11..................()
p kp i
+ > +
where
2
Now
( ) ( )( )
1
111
k
p p p
+
+ = + +

( )( )
11
p kp
> + +
using (
i
)
2
1
kp p kp
= + + +

2
1(1)
k p kp
= + + +
1(1)
k p
+ +
ignoring
2
0
kp

( ) ( )
1
111
p k p
+
+ > + +
Since the truth for
n
=
implies the truth for
1
n
= +
therefore condition
II
of mathematical induction is satisfied. Hence we conclude that
( )
11
n
p np
+ > +
.
Example
Let11
nn
Sn
= + 
where
1
n
To prove that this sequence is an increasing sequence, we use
2
1
pn
=
,
2
n
inBernoulli’s inequality to have
22
111
n
nn n
 >  
111111
n
n n n
  + >    

1111
111111111
n n n n n
n nn n n n n
         + > = = = +        

1
n n
S S
>
1
n
which shows that
{ }
n
S
is increasing sequence.

Example
Let
1
11
nn
n
+
= +
;
1
n
then the sequence is decreasing sequence.We use
2
11
pn
=
in Bernoulli’s inequality.
22
11111
n
nn n
 + > + 
……….. (
i
)where
222
111111
n n nn n n n
 + = = +

2
11111
n nn n n
++ =

 
…………… (
ii
)Now
1
1111
n nn
nn n
= + = 

2
1111
n
nn n
+  = +  
from (
ii
)

Sequences and Series
- 3 -
2
1111
n n
nn n
+  = + 

2
111
n
n nn n
+ > +
from (
i
)111
n
nn n
+> +



22
11
n nn n n
> =
Q

1
1
nn
nn
+
+ = = 
i.e.
1
n n
t
>
Hence the given sequence is decreasing sequence.

Bounded Sequence
A sequence
{ }
n
S
is said to be bounded if there exists a positive real number
λ
such that
n
S n
λ
<
¥
If
S
and
s
are the supremum and infimum of elements forming the boundedsequence
{ }
n
S
we write sup
n
S S
=
and inf
n
s S
=
All the elements of the sequence
n
S
such that
n
S n
λ
<
¥
lie with in thestrip
{ }
:
y y
λ λ
< <
. But the elements of the unbounded sequence can not becontained in any strip of a finite width.
Examples(i)

{ }
(1)
nn
n
=
is a bounded sequence
(ii)

{ } { }
sin
n
V nx
=
is also bounded sequence. Its supremum is 1 and infimum is 1
.
(iii)
The geometric sequence
{ }
1
n
ar
, 1
>
is an unbounded above sequence. It isbounded below by
a
.
(iv)
tan2
n
π
is an unbounded sequence.
Convergence of the Sequence
A sequence
{ }
n
S
of real numbers is said to convergent to limit
s
as
n
, if for every positive real number
0
ε
>
, however small, there exists a positive integer
0
n
,depending upon
ε
, such that
n
S s
ε
<

0
n n
>
.
Theorem
A convergent sequence of real number has one and only one limit (i.e. Limit of the sequence is unique.)
Proof:
Suppose
{ }
n
S
converges to two limits
s
and
, where
s
.Put2
s
ε
=
then there exits two positive integers
1
n
and
2
n
such that
n
S s
ε
<

1
n n
>
and
n
S
ε
<

2
n n
>

n
S s
ε
<
and
n
S
ε
<
hold simultaneously
12
max(,)
n n n
>
.Thus for all
12
max(,)
n n n
>
we have
n n
s t s S S
= − +