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Configuring Tnsnames for Rac

Configuring Tnsnames for Rac

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Published by SHAHID FAROOQ

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Published by: SHAHID FAROOQ on Aug 29, 2009
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Configuring OPS/RAC net service for failover
There are three files to be configured: listener.ora, tnsnames.ora,and sqlnet.ora. You can use netasst to configure them graphically, oryou can just edit these files manually if you are confident withOPS/RAC. We directly edited these files, since it is faster to do so.You must manually edit the files to implement a new listener forfailover and netasst does not allow using the same port number foranother listener.Implementing failover does not allow the use of static serviceconfiguration parameters in the listener.ora file. Therefore, in orderto implement OPS/RAC failover, an additional listener must bespecified on eachnodein the listener.ora file without serviceregistration information. Edit the sqlnet.ora file to ensure thattnsnames.ora is used to resolve a net service name.
Client load balance
When you set load_balance=on in tnsnames.ora, OPS/RAC willbalance the load over the list of listener addresses by picking one atrandom.There are two different kinds of OPS/RAC failovers: connection-timefailover (CTF) and transparent application failover (TAF). For TAF,there are several different configurations using TYPE and METHODparameters.
Connection-time failover (CTF)
Connection-time failover refers to a client attempting to connect to asecond listener when the attempt to connect to the first listener fails.To implement this, create a new net service name with thedatabasenameas its identifier, such as opswas, instead of opshp1 or opshp2.Put the address information of allnodesin theclusterin this newly created global net service name.Use one of two options: FAILOVER=ONSetting this means: try each address in order until one succeeds.FAILOVER=ON LOAD_BALANCE=ONSetting this means: try each address randomly until one succeeds.WebSphere® works with either setting.
Example 12-8is a sample tnsnames.ora file using these OPS/RACconnection-time failover options.Example 12-8 Sample OPS/RAC CTF tnsnames.ora file
Transparent application failover (TAF)
Transparent application failover enables an application toautomatically reconnect to a database if the connection is broken.Activetransactionsroll back, and the newdatabase connectionis identical to the original one no matter how the connection is lost.Implementing transparent application failover requires you tomanually configure tnsnames.ora with the specification of a primarynode, a backupnode, failover type, and failover method. You can also combine OPS/RAC CTF with OPS/RAC TAF. As shown inTable 12-1, there are 12 configurations (2 CTF x 3 TYPE x 2 METHOD) for theOPS/RAC TAF implementations.Table 12-1
Combinations of OPS/RAC/TAF failover configurationimplementations
The parameter TYPE specifies the type of failover. This is a requiredparameter for the TAF failover. There are three options: SESSION,SELECT, andNONE. Selection of SESSION means that OPS/RAC fails over thesession. A newsessionwill be created automatically for use on the backup if a user's connection is lost. This type of failover doesnot attempt to recover selects after a failover. ChoosingSELECT means that OPS/RAC allows users with opencursorsto continuefetching on them after a failover. Although the performance for thistype of TAF during a failover is good, it has an overhead duringnormal select operations. Selection of NONEmeans that no failoverfunction is used. This is the default.The parameter METHOD specifies how fast a failover occurs from theprimarynodeto the backupnode. There are two options: BASIC and PRECONNECT. Selection of BASIC means that OPS/RAC establishesconnection at failover time. This option requires almost no work onthebackup serveruntil failover time. Selection of PRECONNECTmeans that OPS/RAC pre-establishes connections all the time. This isgood for failover performance, but bad fornormal operation, since itrequires the backup instance to support all connections from everysupported instance.Example 12-9shows a sample tnsnames.ora for OPS/RAC/TAFconfiguration with CTF.Example 12-9 Sample OPS/RAC TAF with CTF tnsnames.ora file
Alternatively,Example 12-10shows a sample tnsnames.ora for theOPS/RAC/TAF with primary and secondary servers configured.

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