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Psychological Factors’ Implications on Consumers’ Buying Behaviour. Examples from Tanzania

Psychological Factors’ Implications on Consumers’ Buying Behaviour. Examples from Tanzania

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Published by: bakilana_mba9363 on Aug 29, 2009
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Psychological Factors’ Implications on Consumers’ BuyingBehaviour: Examples from Tanzania
Gabriel Byabato Bakilana
June 2009
Consumer Behaviour 
Consumer behaviour is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when theybuy and why they buy. It blends elements from psychology, sociology,sociopsychology, anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand thebuyer decision processes/buyer decision making process, both individually and ingroups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics,psychographics, and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people'swants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such asfamily, friends, reference groups, and society in general.According to Kotler and Keller (2006) consumer behaviour is the study of howindividuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods,services, ideas or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants.A study of consumer behaviour provides clues for improving or introducingproducts or services, setting prices, devising channels, crafting messages anddeveloping other marketing activities. Consumer’s buying behaviour is influencedby cultural, social and personal factors. Cultural factors exert the broadest anddeepest influence.
Consumer Psychology
Consumer psychology is the study of how people relate to the products andservices that they purchase or use. Consumer psychologists study virtually allpsychological and behavioural responses that can occur within the context of aperson's role as a consumer. And consistent with the goals of psychologists fromother areas, research carried out by consumer psychologists is designed todescribe, predict, explain, and/or influence consumer responses to product- andservice-related information and experiences. For example, a research onconsumer psychology may be used to:
Provide information to companies and consumers on what the publicneeds or wants
Help an organization (either profit or non-profit) effectively develop andmarket products, services, or ideas
Guide the work of government agencies that are responsible for productsafety, identity of brand names, evaluation of advertising claims, andassessment of ethical marketing practices
A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. Amotive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. Needs canbe classified into biogenic and psychogenic needs.
Biogenic needs arise from psychological states of tension such as hunger, thirstor discomfort while psychogenic needs arise from psychological states of tensionsuch as the need for recognition, esteem or belonging.Motivation is about what makes any living creature go in search of something,whether it is lions seeking shade or customers looking for a cold drink. InMarketing, it's all about finding out what your customers really need (and wantand the difference between those two concepts) and what they are willing to doto get it. It's also about finding out how much you, as the marketer, are willing todo to satisfy those customers.Motivation has much to do with desire and ambition, and if they are absent,motivation is absent too. Often, a person has the desire and ambition to getsomething done or achieve a certain goal, but lacks the push, the initiative andthe willingness to take action. This shows a lack of motivation and inner drive.Motivation strengthens the ambition, increases initiative and gives direction,courage, energy and the persistence to follow one's goals. A motivated persontakes action and does whatever he/she needs to achieve his/her goals.Motivation is usually strong, when one has a vision, a clear mental image of acertain situation or achievement, and also a strong desire to materialize it. In thiscase motivation pushes one forward, toward taking action and making the visiona reality.Motivation can be applied to every action and goal. It could be motivation tostudy a foreign language, to get good grades at school, bake a cake, write apoem, take a walk everyday, make more money, get a better job, buy a newhouse, own a business or become a writer, a doctor or a lawyer. Motivation ispresent whenever there is a clear vision, precise knowledge of what one wants todo, a strong desire and faith in one's abilities.Three best known theories of human motivation are those of Sigmund Freud,Abraham Maslow and Frederick Hertzberg. These are the best because theycarry quite different implications for consumer analysis and marketing strategy.
Freud’s theory assumes that the psychological forces shaping people’sbehaviour are largely unconscious and that a person can not fullyunderstand his/her own motivations.
 A marketer should understand that when a person examines specific brands he/she will react not only to their stated capabilities but also toother less conscious cues. Shape, size, weight, material, colour and brand name can all trigger certain associations and emotions.

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