Consumer behaviour is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when theybuy and why they buy. It blends elements from psychology, sociology,sociopsychology, anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand thebuyer decision processes/buyer decision making process, both individually and ingroups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics,psychographics, and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people'swants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such asfamily, friends, reference groups, and society in general.According to Kotler and Keller (2006) consumer behaviour is the study of howindividuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods,services, ideas or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants.A study of consumer behaviour provides clues for improving or introducingproducts or services, setting prices, devising channels, crafting messages anddeveloping other marketing activities. Consumer’s buying behaviour is influencedby cultural, social and personal factors. Cultural factors exert the broadest anddeepest influence.
Consumer psychology is the study of how people relate to the products andservices that they purchase or use. Consumer psychologists study virtually allpsychological and behavioural responses that can occur within the context of aperson's role as a consumer. And consistent with the goals of psychologists fromother areas, research carried out by consumer psychologists is designed todescribe, predict, explain, and/or influence consumer responses to product- andservice-related information and experiences. For example, a research onconsumer psychology may be used to:
Provide information to companies and consumers on what the publicneeds or wants
Help an organization (either profit or non-profit) effectively develop andmarket products, services, or ideas
Guide the work of government agencies that are responsible for productsafety, identity of brand names, evaluation of advertising claims, andassessment of ethical marketing practices
A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. Amotive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. Needs canbe classified into biogenic and psychogenic needs.