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Democracy in Malaysia

Democracy in Malaysia

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Published by shahdhuan

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Published by: shahdhuan on Aug 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Parliament is derived from the French word “
is to speak where
isa discussion or a realm to throw out opinion in decision making. Parliament in a literal waymeans a legislature.A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. Parliament is the law making body in most democratic countries. Despite havingone person making law in authoritarian or dictatorship, parliament is a center of to discuss and todecide in making a law. These three words parliament, legislature and democracy stand in oneline of similarities and connection.Abraham Lincoln’s great description of democracy, government by the people, for the people, of the people, is true if we look upon the voting system or electoral system where as from the beginning of forming a government, party system, passing legislation, decision, choosing aleader and etc are made through voting process. Therefore the power is in the hand of the people.The selected people or group (government) is just a representative to execute input and commandfrom the below, theoretically.Here is the definition of democracy quoted from Wikipedia, “
 Democracy is a system of  government by which political sovereignty is retained by the people and exercised directly bycitizens. In modern times it has also been used to refer to a constitutional republic where the people have a voice through their elected representatives. It is derived from the Greek;democratia which was coined from (dēmos), "people" and (kratos), "rule, strength" in the middleof the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states,notably Athens. In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms o government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy include. The
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 first principle is that all members of the society have equal access to power and the second that all members enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties
.”Practically speaking, a vice versa situation occurred in few countries and scenario. The reasons behind these are the kind of system which is practiced nowadays in modern times. Democracy isdivided into various types and guidelines. There are many types of democracy to be listed butfew are commonly used which are constitutional democracy, parliamentary democracy,republican democracy. Not to be confused that many dictatorship have called them self “republics” but generally do not protect the rights or liberty of their citizens.To speak about parliament, there are many types of parliamentary system exist the modern time.Each of this type differ from many aspects but parliament exist as the main law making body.Parliamentary republic will be looked upon to compare and contrast with presidential republic. Inshort presidential republic is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides separately from the legislatures.We will discuss further on this topic on Parliamentary democracy:
Parliamentary democracy
Parliamentary democracy where government is appointed by parliamentary representatives asopposed to a 'presidential rule' by decree dictatorship. Under a parliamentary democracy,government is exercised by delegation to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing review,checks and balances by the legislative parliament elected by the people government is exercised
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 by delegation to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing review, checks and balances by thelegislative parliament elected by the people
Types of Parliamentary Democracy
There are broadly two forms of Parliamentary Democracies.
Westminster Systemor Westminster Models tend to be found inCommonwealth of  Nationscountries, although they are not universal within nor exclusive to Commonwealthcountries. These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of parliament is relatively more important than committees. Some parliaments in this model are elected using "First Past the Post" electoral systems, (e.g.Canada,Indiaand theUK ), others using proportional representation, e.g.Irelandand  New Zealand.TheAustralian House of Representativesis elected using thealternativeor   preferential votewhile theSenateis elected using PRSTV (proportional representation through thesingle transferable vote). However even whenproportional representation  systems are used, the systems used tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidaterather than a party list.This model does allow for a greater separation of powers than theWestern European Model, although the extent of the separation of powers is nowherenear that of the presidential systemof United States.
Western European Parliamentary Model(e.g.,Spain,Germany) tend to have a more consensual debating system, and have semi-cyclical debating chambers.Proportionalrepresentationsystems are used, where there is more of a tendency to useparty list  systems than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliamentstend to be more important than the plenary chamber. This model is sometimes called theWest GermanModel since its earliest exemplar in its final form was in theBundestagof 

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