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Globalization of World Politics

Globalization of World Politics

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The Globalization of World Politics:Revision guide 3eBaylis & Smith:
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The Globalization of World Politics: Revision guide 3eBaylis & Smith:
 
Chapter 01: The globalization of world politics• Over the last three decades the sheer scale and scope of global interconnectednesshas become increasingly evident in every sphere from the economic to the cultural.Sceptics do not regard this as evidence of globalization if that term means somethingmore than simply international independence, i.e. linkages between countries. Thekey issue becomes what we understand by the term 'globalization'.• Globalization is evident in the growing extensity, intensity, velocity and deepening
 
 
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impact of worldwide interconnectedness.• Globalization denotes a shift in the scale of social organization, the emergence of the world as a shared social space, the relative de-territorialization of social,economic and political activity, and the relative de-nationalization of power.• Globalization can be conceptualized as fundamental shift or transformation in thespatial scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expandsthe reach of power relations across regions and continents.• Globalization is to be distinguished from internationalization and regionalization.• The contemporary phase of globalization has proved more robust in the aftermathof September 11th than the sceptics recognize.• Contemporary globalization is a multi-dimensional, uneven, and asymmetricalprocess.• Contemporary globalization is best described as thick form of globalization orglobalism.• Globalization is transforming but not burying the Westphalian ideal of sovereignstatehood.• Globalization requires a conceptual shift in our thinking about world politics from aprimarily geopolitical perspective to the perspective of globalized or global politics–the politics of worldwide social relations.• Global politics is more accurately described as distorted global politics because it isafflicted by significant power asymmetries.• Globalization creates a double democratic deficit in that it places limits ondemocracy within states and new mechanisms of global governance which lackdemocratic credentials.• Global politics has engendered its own global political theory which draws uponcosmopolitan thinking.• Cosmopolitanism offers an account of the desirability and feasibility of thedemocratization of global politics.• Distorted global politics can be interpreted as expressing a contest between theforces of statism and cosmopolitanism in the conduct and management of worldaffairs.Chapter 02: The evolution of international society• International society is an association of member states who not only interactacross international borders but also share common purposes, organizations, andstandards of conduct.• There are different historical versions of international society the most important of which is the contemporary global international society.• Political independence is the core value of international society.• In understanding international society it is important to keep in mind contrastinggroup relations, such as empires, which are far more common historically. Someargue that the concept of international society is not incompatible with forms of imperial power, understood as hierarchal relations between states in the global Northand South.• Two forerunner international societies were ancient Greece and Renaissance Italy.• Two empires that contrasted with these international societies and also served as ahistorical bridge between them were the Roman Empire and its direct Christiansuccessor in the West, the medieval Respublica Christiana.
 
• Greek international society was based on the polis and Hellenic culture.• Italian international society was based on the stato and the strong urban identitiesand rivalries of Renaissance Italians.• These small international societies were eventually overwhelmed by neighbouringhegemonic powers.• The Peace of Westphalia was the first explicit expression of a European society of states, which served as a precedent for all subsequent developments of internationalsociety.• That international society displaced and succeeded the medieval RespublicaChristiana.• It was the external aspect of the development of modern secular states that had tofind an orderly and legitimate way to conduct mutual relations without submitting toeither superior authority or hegemonic domination from abroad.• It was the first completely explicit international society, even though it wascentered in Europe, with its own diplomatic institutions, formal body of law, andenunciated practices of prudential statecraft, including the balance of power.• Through their rivalries and wars European states developed the militaryorganization and technology to project their power on a global scale and few nonEuropean political systems could block their expansion.• European international law, diplomacy, and the balance of power came to beapplied around the world.• Indigenous non Western nationalists eventually went into revolt and claimed a rightof self determination which led to decolonization and the expansion of internationalsociety.• That was followed by a further expansion after the Cold War, brought about by thedisintegration of the Soviet Union and several other communist states.• During the 1990s, for the first time in history, there was one inclusive internationalsociety of global extent.• Whether this model of international society can endure under US hegemony is thesubject of some dispute.• Today international society is usually conceived as a global social framework of shared norms and values based on state sovereignty.• An important manifestation of that social framework is the UN Charter.• But those shared norms and values have provoked unprecedented problems andpredicaments of contemporary world politics.• There is a current debate about the future of state sovereignty and thus also aboutthe future of the contemporary global international society.OXFORD H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n © Oxford University Press, 2005. All rightsreserved. Chapter 03: International history, 1900-1945 • Europe's instability can betraced back to the creation of a unified Germany in the 1870s, which disrupted thebalance of power. • The European powers clashed over imperial issues in the latenineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as Germany sought colonies and markets. •A number of European dynasties were in a state of collapse, leaving open thequestion of what territorial and constitutional arrangements would replace theseempires when they finally disintegrated. • At the same time, nationalism wasgrowing, particularly in the Balkans and Central Europe, with nationalist movementsasserting their claims to statehood in the decaying Ottoman and Austro Hungarianempires. • A combination of imperial, nationalist, and economic tensions ultimately

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