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Improved Artificial Breeding Techniques of Tiger Groupe1

Improved Artificial Breeding Techniques of Tiger Groupe1

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06/13/2013

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Improved Artificial Breeding Techniques of Tiger Grouper (
 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
)
Hussin Mat Ali, Ahmad Daud Om, Shaharah Mohd Idris, Sufian Mustafa and Teoh Pik NengMarine Finfish Production and Research Center,Tanjung Demong, 22200 Besut,Terengganu.
 Abstract 
Artificial breeding of tiger grouper (
 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
) at Marine FinfishProduction and Research Center, Besut, Terengganu (MAPREC) began in February 1995.The first breakthrough was achieved two months later in April 1995 using naturallyspawned eggs. However, attempts to improve the breeding techniques and tocommercialize the findings were not immediately carried out due to several technical andmanagerial constraints. In 2004 and 2005, artificial breeding of tiger grouper wasresumed with reference developments in the field of system operation, larval nutritionand health management. Additional broodstock of various sizes ranging from 3.0 kg to6.0 kg each were subjected to broodstock management methods such as natural andinduce spawning in order to have a regular spawning and consistent egg quality. Theeggs produced were hatched and reared under specific rearing methods and criticalaspects of production in order to achieve the targeted survival rate of 3-5% for 35-45 dayafter hatching (DAH). The juveniles produced were then nursed in several types of nursery facilities to achieve 40 – 60% survival rate or 2% final survival rate when the fryattained 7.5 – 10.0 cm in total length (TL).
 Abstrak 
Pembiakan aruhan ikan kerapu harimau (
 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
) di PusatPengeluaran dan Penyelidikan Ikan Laut, Besut, Terengganu (PPPIL) bermula padaFebruari 1995. Kejayaan pertama berlaku dua bulan selepas itu iaitu pada bulan April1995 menggunakan telur semulajadi. Bagaimanapun, percubaan untuk meningkatkanteknik pembiakan dan untuk mengkomersial penemuan yang diperolehi telah tergendalaakibat dari masalah teknikal dan pentadbiran. Pada tahun 2004 dan 2005, pembiakankerapu harimau telah dimulakan semula dengan merujuk kepada perkembangan sistemoperasi lapangan, pemakanan rega dan pengurusan kesihatan. Penambahan induk dari pelbagai saiz dari 3.0 kg hingga 6.0 kg telah dijalankan pengurusan induk seperti pembiakan aruhan dan semulajadi supaya peneluran akan berlaku dan kualiti telur yangkonsisten akan didapati. Telur yang dihasilkan ditetaskan dan di ternak dengan kaedahyang spesifik dan aspek pengeluaran yang kritikal supaya kadar hidup dapat ditingkatkandengan kadar 3-5% pada hari 35-45 selepas penetasan. Ikan juvenil yang dihasilkanakan diternak dengan beberapa kaedah asuhan untuk mencapai kadar hidup 40-60%ataupun 2% kadar hidup akhir apabila ikan telah mencapai saiz 7.5 – 10.0 cm panjangtotalnya.1
 
INTRODUCTION
Aquaculture of high value marine finfish species continues to develop rapidly inSoutheast Asia. Many grouper members of the family Serranidae, subfamilyEpinephelinae bring high prices up to US$70/kg wholesale in the live markets of HongKong and Southern China (McGilvray and Chan, 2001). Increasing market demand andthe real perceived profitability of the live reef food fish trade has led to many SoutheastAsian and Pacific countries focussing on suppling this apparently lucrative trade throughaquaculture (Sadovy
et al 
., 2003).Tiger grouper,
 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
or commonly known as blotchy grouper or flower cod is a popular marine food fish of high market value in Southeast Asia becauseof its excellent taste and scarcity value. It is widely distributed in the Western Pacific andIndian Oceans. In Indonesian waters, the species is a common target fish for fishermenand considered to be a desirable fish for culture (Kohno
et al.,
1991). It has been farmedcommercially in marine cages and ponds in Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore andChina (Rimmer, M. 1998). The culture of the tiger grouper has not been popularized inthe world due to rare availability of seed. In Malaysia, the species is naturally availableand being cultured in Sabah and Langkawi Island.The important of tiger grouper to aquaculture industry in Southeast Asia has beenrealized since late 1980’s. In 1995, MAFPREC started the tiger grouper fry productionresearch using wild broodstock imported from neighboring country. The first breakthrough was achieved two months later in April 1995 using naturally spawned eggs(Hussin, M.A.
et al 
., 1996). However, attempts to improve the breeding techniques andto commercialize the findings were not immediately carried out due to several technicaland managerial constraints. In 2004 and 2005, artificial breeding of tiger grouper wasresumed. Additional broodstock of various sizes ranging from 3.0 kg to 6.0 kg each weresubjected to broodstock management methods such as natural and induce spawning inorder to have a regular spawning and consistent egg quality.2
 
To date, a handfull amount of research on tiger grouper has been done on variousaspects of captive breeding techniques including broodstock development andmaintenance, spawning, larval rearing and fry nursery. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the research findings and observation on captive breeding of tiger grouper at MAFPREC for the purpose of commercialization by target groups and toenhance local industry of tiger grouper fry production.
BROODSTOCK DEVELOPMENT
The purpose of broodstock development is to supply good quality spawners. Asuccesful hatcery operation is based on healthy broodstock. Collection of broodstock isthe first bottleneck because the mature fish are expensive and less availability incaptivity. Broodstock can be obtained from the wild or from ponds, where younggroupers are reared until sexual maturity. Matured broodstock is scarcely available inMalaysia except in Sabah, thus demanding higher prices ranging from RM 120.00 – 230.00/kg.Tiger grouper is a protangynous hermafrodite, meaning that the fish first sexuallymatured as female and change to male in the later part of its life. The smallest maturedfemale appeared at MAFPREC at average body weight of 2.4 kg and later transformedinto male at average body weight of 8 kg. Some females do not change the sex eventhey grow to 10 kg of body weight. This may happen due to probably to captiveconditions (Ketut Sugama et al., 2001).In 2005, MAFPREC proved that functional male and female of tiger grouper can beraised in indoor tanks. This method of growing young fish in captive conditions enablesto select the strong and the fast growing fish. Current research conducted on inducedmaturation of male and female tiger grouper at ealier age or smaller size is been carriedout.3

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Salam, could i rear tiger grouper larvae in artificial seawater?
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