Obligation, Necessity, And Prohibition - Presentation Transcript
1. OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO
We can use “must”, “have to” and “have got to” to express obligation.
Broadly speaking, when “must” is used, the obligation comes from the speaker, (internal obligation):
I really must stop smoking.2. OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO
If we talk about or report an obligation that comes from “outside” (for example: a regulation or orderfrom somebody else)
“ must” is possible (especially in written rules)
Cars must not be parked here.
“ have to” is more common
I have to work from 9 a.m till 5 p.m. (an order from the boss)
“ have got to” is usually only used in spoken English or written fiction. It
can be used for“external” and “internal” obligation
I’ve got to post this letter before 7 0’clock.3. OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO
In negative sentences “don’t need to”, “needn’t”, “don’t have to” or
“haven’t got to” isused to say that there’s no obligation;
you needn’t work tomorrow if you don’t want to.
“ Mustn’t” is used to tell people not to do things; means that something is
wrong,dangerous or not permitted
you mustn’t move any paper on my desk.4. SHOULD AND OUGHT TO
“ Should” and “ought to” are used to express mild obligation and duty, and
in general to say what wethink it is good for people to do
you shouldn’t work too hard.
In most cases, both “should” and “ought to” can be used with more or less the same meaning.
You should /ought to go and see your uncle. He’s very ill.5. SHOULD AND OUGHT TO
However, there is a slight difference:
When we use “should” we give our own subjective opinion;
“ Ought to” has a rather more objective force, and is used when we talk about laws, duties andregulations.
We ought to go and see your uncle next week, but I don’t think we will.
It would sound strange to use should and then add we are not going to see him.6. BE ALLOWED TO + infinitive
It’s used to talk about things you can do or are permitted to do.
It is similar in meaning with “permit”, however “permit” is a little more formal.
Both verbs can be followed by OBJECT + INFINITIVE
We don’t allow people to smoke in class.
It’s worth stating here that when there is no personal object , a gerund
(-ing form) is used
We don’t allow smoking in class.
' mood '
( e.g. Listen , eat, talk).