Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
39Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
01. Modal Verb

01. Modal Verb

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5,972|Likes:
Published by libnianira

More info:

Published by: libnianira on Aug 31, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/16/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Obligation, Necessity, And Prohibition - Presentation Transcript
1. OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO
o
strong obligation
AFFIRMATIVE USE
o
We can use “must”, “have to” and “have got to” to express obligation.
o
Broadly speaking, when “must” is used, the obligation comes from the speaker, (internal obligation):
o
I really must stop smoking.2. OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO
o
If we talk about or report an obligation that comes from “outside” (for example: a regulation or orderfrom somebody else)
“ must” is possible (especially in written rules)
Cars must not be parked here.
“ have to” is more common
I have to work from 9 a.m till 5 p.m. (an order from the boss)
“ have got to” is usually only used in spoken English or written fiction. It
can be used for“external” and “internal” obligation
I’ve got to post this letter before 7 0’clock.3. OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO
o
NEGATIVE USE
In negative sentences “don’t need to”, “needn’t”, “don’t have to” or
“haven’t got to” isused to say that there’s no obligation;
you needn’t work tomorrow if you don’t want to.
mustn’t)
(NOT
“ Mustn’t” is used to tell people not to do things; means that something is
wrong,dangerous or not permitted
you mustn’t move any paper on my desk.4. SHOULD AND OUGHT TO
o
“ Should” and “ought to” are used to express mild obligation and duty, and
in general to say what wethink it is good for people to do
you shouldn’t work too hard.
o
In most cases, both “should” and “ought to” can be used with more or less the same meaning.
You should /ought to go and see your uncle. He’s very ill.5. SHOULD AND OUGHT TO
o
However, there is a slight difference:
When we use “should” we give our own subjective opinion;
“ Ought to” has a rather more objective force, and is used when we talk about laws, duties andregulations.
We ought to go and see your uncle next week, but I don’t think we will.
It would sound strange to use should and then add we are not going to see him.6. BE ALLOWED TO + infinitive
o
It’s used to talk about things you can do or are permitted to do.
o
It is similar in meaning with “permit”, however “permit” is a little more formal.
o
Both verbs can be followed by OBJECT + INFINITIVE
We don’t allow people to smoke in class.
o
It’s worth stating here that when there is no personal object , a gerund
(-ing form) is used
We don’t allow smoking in class.
 Auxiliary verbs:
' mood '
 Lexical verbs:
( e.g. Listen , eat, talk).
 
 
Modals:will - may - can - could - should - ought to - have -dare to - need (not) - might - must - would - ( used to )
General characteristics :
 1°) No (s) for 3
rd
 person singular present.2°) Followed by bare infinitive, except: have (to) - ought (to).3°) For questions you invert the subject and the modal .Can I ? Should he ? Would they ?4°) Negative: Modal + not 
Ability - Obligation/Necessity - Probability - PermissionProhibition - Willingness - Prediction/Certainty
 
 Ability:
A) Can is more common in the present:Past: - he could play the piano.- I'm sure you can't do it.- Can you drive ?B) Past ability: could/ be able:1- When he was young he could/was able to run fast .2- He fell into trouble and was able to save himself. (ability in a particular situation)C) Could ( in the present) _ condition:1- I could get you a drink if you want. ( requests: could is more polite than can)2- Could you open the window please ?3- He said he could type. (reported speech)
 
D)1- Even good students can make mistakes. (occasional)2- A good car can cost a lot of money. (general characteristics)3- he could be funny. (sometimes) 
 Possibility: (can/ could/ may/ might)
A)1- Traditional products can be found anywhere in Morocco.2- The North can be very cold . (Affirmative present)3- he can be very arrogant. (occasionally) (general possibility)B)1-She might ( could ) be right. (present)2- He might know the answer. (future)3- They might/could listen to you. (future)- may/might: 50% certainty.- may: reasonable possibility.- might: most strong possibility.4- It may/might/could snow. (less)5- It may not be as cold as last years. ( negative possibility)C) Could/can't/couldn't ( for conclusions about the past):1- It could be true. ( It's possible that it's true)2- It can't be true. It's impossible. (confident)3- It couldn't be true. It's impossible. (hesitant)D) May/might instead of will/would:- If you knock on the door, She will (certain) / may (possible) answer. 
 Permission (can/could/may/might):
May I ? Can I ? Could I ? Might I ?A)1- May I join ? (most confident)2- Might I join ? ( weakest)3- Could I possibly join ? (more formal)4- Do you think I could possibly join ?

Activity (39)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Samir Via liked this
kagmandu liked this
Murni Wong liked this
Beatle Jose liked this
aelbettani liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->