ap – unctions o oune variation.
2
Ð
Example
A continuous function may not be a function of bounded variation.e.g. Consider a function
f
, where;when 01sin();when 00
x x f xx x
p
ì< £ïí=ïî
It is clear that
f
is continuous on [0,1].Let us choose the partition22220,,,........,,,1212153
Pn n
ì ü=í ý+ î þ
Then
1
()()
i i
f x f x


å
( )
222233521
(1).......0
n
f f f f f f
+
æ ö æ ö æ ö æ ö=  +  + + ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷è ø è ø è ø è ø
232325sinsinsinsin..........323252
p p p p
æ ö æ ö æ ö=  +  +ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷è ø è ø è ø
2(21).....sin0212
nn
p
+æ ö+ ç ÷+è ø
22222222............33557212121
n n n
æ ö æ ö æ ö= + + + + + + + +ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ + +è ø è ø è ø
2222222.............235721
n
æ öæ ö æ ö æ ö æ ö= + + + +ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ç ÷+è ø è ø è ø è øè ø
11114.............35721
n
æ ö= + + + +ç ÷+è ø
Since the infinite series111...........357
+ + +
is divergent, therefore its partial sumssequence
{ }
n
S
, where1111........35721
n
Sn
= + + + ++
, is not bounded above.Thus
1
()()
i i
f x f x


å
can be made arbitrarily large by taking
n
sufficientlylarge.
( )
;0,1
V f
Þ ®¥
and so
f
is not of bounded variation.
q
Ð
Remarks
A function of bounded variation is not necessarily continuous.e.g. the stepfunction ()[]
f x x
=
, where []
x
denotes the greatest integer notgreater than
x
, is a function of bounded variation on [0,2] but is not continuous.
Ð
Theorem
If the derivative of the function
f
exists and is bounded on [,]
a b
, then
f
is of bounded variation on [,]
a b
.
Proof
Q
f
¢
is bounded on [,]
a b
k
\ $
such that
()
f x k
¢£
[,]
x a b
" Î
.Let
P
be any partition of the interval [,]
a b
then
11
()()()
i i i i
f x f x x x f c
 
¢ = 
å å
, [,]
c a b
Î
(by M.V.T)
k b a
£ 
( )
;,
V f a b
Þ
is finite.
f
Þ
is of bounded variation.
q