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Flickering Light

Flickering Light

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Published by Alexander Wunsch
Reference list resulting from keyword search: flickering light.
From Alexander Wunsch, using CITAVI.
Reference list resulting from keyword search: flickering light.
From Alexander Wunsch, using CITAVI.

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Published by: Alexander Wunsch on Aug 31, 2009
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iLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - Citavi Accornero, N.; Berardelli, A.; Fabiano, F.; Inghilleri, M.; Taverniti, L. (1983): [Perception of light modulation]. In:Bollettino della Società italiana di biologia sperimentale, Jg. 59, H. 12, S. 1980–1983. AbstractA simple method for testing visual sensitivity to flickering light sources is proposed.The method employs a triangular function generator, which modulates theluminance of a chromatic light source. Amplitude and frequency of the triangular pattern are adjusted until the subject perceives a periodic variation of luminance. Innormal subjects the maximum sensitivity was found at a frequency modulation of 5-10 Hz. In multiple sclerosis patients the method proved to be more accurate thanflicker fusion frequency in revealing subclinical damage of the visual pathway.Schlagwörter Flicker Fusionphysiology; Humans; Multiple Sclerosisphysiopathology; PhoticStimulation; Visual Perceptionphysiology Anderson, A. J.; Vingrys, A. J. (2001): Multiple processes mediate flicker sensitivity. In: Vision research, Jg. 41,H. 19, S. 2449–2455. AbstractBy systematically manipulating the luminance of a flickering spot and the areaimmediately surrounding it, we investigated why thresholds from flickering stimulithat cause a change in average luminance are elevated relative to those fromstimuli with no luminance change. Threshold elevation resulted from local lightadaptation and from temporal-frequency-specific interactions between the spot andits surround: at low frequencies, the contrast between the spot and the surroundelevated thresholds, whereas at high frequencies, dark adaptation within thesurround elevated thresholds. Our findings suggest that two common ways of determining temporal sensitivity may give markedly different outcomes.Schlagwörter  Adaptation, Ocularphysiology; Adult; Analysis of Variance; ContrastSensitivityphysiology; Humans; Lighting; Sensory Thresholdsphysiology; TimeFactors Anderson, D. J.; Legg, N. J.; Ridout, D. A. (1997): Preliminary trial of photic stimulation for premenstrualsyndrome. In: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Jg. 17, H. 1, S. 76–79. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1080/01443619750114211. AbstractIn an open study 17 women with confirmed, severe and long-standing premenstrualsyndrome used photic stimulation with a flickering red light, every day for up to four menstrual cycles. At the end of treatment prospectively recorded median lutealsymptom scores were reduced by 76% (95% confidence interval 54-93, P < 0.001),with clinically and statistically significant reductions for depression, anxiety, affectivelability, irritability, poor concentration, fatigue, food cravings, bloating and breastpain. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) no longer had the premenstrual syndrome.One patient failed to improve. One patient withdrew because of worseningpremenstrual depression, but photic stimulation was otherwise well tolerated. Theimprovement is greater than that reported for relaxation or in open studies of fluoxetine, and much more than historical placebo rates. Photic stimulation may bea useful treatment for the premenstrual syndrome, and by its suggested action oncircadian rhythms may have wider therapeutic applications.Becker, Cordula; Elliott, Mark A. (2006): Flicker-induced color and form: interdependencies and relation tostimulation frequency and phase. In: Consciousness and cognition, Jg. 15, H. 1, S. 175–196. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.concog.2005.05.004. AbstractOur understanding of human visual perception generally rests on the assumptionthat conscious visual states represent the interaction of spatial structures in theenvironment and our nervous system. This assumption is questioned bycircumstances where conscious visual states can be triggered by externalstimulation which is not primarily spatially defined. Here, subjective colors andforms are evoked by flickering light while the precise nature of those experiencesvaries over flicker frequency and phase. What's more, the occurrence of onesubjective experience appears to be associated with the occurrence of others.
iLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - CitaviWhile these data indicate that conscious visual experience may be evoked directlyby particular variations in the flow of spatially unstructured light over time, it must beassumed that the systems responsible are essentially temporal in character andcapable of representing a variety of visual forms and colors, coded in differentfrequencies or at different phases of the same processing rhythm.Schlagwörter  Adult; Color Perception; Humans; Light; Male; Models, Psychological; PhysicalStimulationmethods; Time Factors; Visual PerceptionBobon, D. P.; Lecoq, A.; Frenckell, R. von; Mormont, I.; Lavergne, G.; Lottin, T.: [Critical flicker fusion frequencyin psychopathology and psychopharmacology. Review of the literature]. In: Acta psychiatrica Belgica, Jg. 82, H.1, S. 7–112. AbstractAs far back as the second century, Ptolemy reported the apparent immobility owheel radius at a certain speed. The psychophysical laws of this flicker fusionphenomenon related to the frequency of the light stimulus were established in 1834-1835 by the Englishman Talbot and by the Belgian Plateau, whose thesis in Liège isdescribed as a landmark in the field. CFF is more a measurement of cortical arousalthan of visual functions. In psychophysiology, CFF underwent periods of successand oblivion, at the mercy of researcher's enthusiasm or disappointment. At the turnof this century, Pierre Janet measured CFF in the laboratory of physiology of theSalpêtrière Hospital and demonstrated its decrease 'in hysteria, in states of depression, of lowered tension'. All reviewers of CFF literature have overlookedthese observations, reported by Henri Piéron in the 'Melanges dedicated toMonsieur Pierre Janet'. When CFF falls into disgrace, it is because of the variabilityof its results, due to differences in apparatus and designs of the trials as well as thegreat number and the intrication of the variables which modify CFF thresholds,among them the nonsensory variables. When CFF is reappraised, as it has beenthe case in psychopharmacology in recent years, the reason is that it represents abrief, easy and economical measure of vigilance which, under certain conditions,seems to be also reliable, valid and sensitive. In the present monograph, the first inFrench on CFF, the authors try to analyze the most important contributions of theliterature from the standpoint of the most relevant variables: characteristics of thestimulus (light intensity, wave form, wavelength, light-dark-ratio, diameter of theflickering point), test procedure (light vs. dark adaptation, visual angle, continuousvs. discontinuous presentation, monocular vs. binocular vision), influence of variousphysiological or psychological conditions (pupillary diameter, age, training, IQ;anxiety, depression, motivation etc.). The authors summarize the prerequisite for CFF to measure vigilance or aging in psychopharmacological research. The presentMonograph is dedicated to the authors' 'Maîtres', who recently became EmeritusProfessors, namely the ophthalmologist Roger Weekers, the pioneer of the clinicalapplication of CFF in Belgium, and the psychiatrist Jean Bobon, who pioneeredclinical psychopharmacology in Belgium.Schlagwörter  Adaptation, Oculardrug effects; Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Dominance,Cerebralphysiology; Female; Flicker Fusiondrug effectsphysiology; Humans;Intelligencedrug effects; Male; Mental Disorderspsychology; Motivationdrug effects;Photic Stimulation; Psychotropic Drugspharmacology; Sensory Thresholds; VisualFieldsdrug effects; Visual PathwaysphysiologyBoshouwers, F. M.; Nicaise, E. (1992): Responses of broiler chickens to high-frequency and low-frequencyfluorescent light. In: British poultry science, Jg. 33, H. 4, S. 711–717. Abstract1. The influence of the flicker frequency on physical activity and energy expenditureof broilers was studied using commercially available high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) fluorescent lamps in a 23L:1D lighting schedule. 2. Broilers werereared under and adapted to HF. They were alternately subjected to HF and LFduring measurement of activity and energy expenditure. 3. In comparison with HF,LF inhibited activity (number and intensity of movements), but did not influenceenergy expenditure. 4. It was concluded that the 100 Hz flickering of low-frequency
iLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - CitaviiLib08 - Citavilight is detected by broilers and has measurable behavioural effects upon them. 5.The results were discussed in relation to current knowledge of human and birds'critical flicker frequency and perception.Schlagwörter  Animals; Chickensphysiology; Flicker Fusionphysiology; Lightingmethods; Motor  ActivityphysiologyBuerk, D. G.; Riva, C. E.; Cranstoun, S. D. (1995): Frequency and luminance-dependent blood flow and K+ ionchanges during flicker stimuli in cat optic nerve head. In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Jg. 36,H. 11, S. 2216–2227. AbstractPURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood flow in thecat optic nerve head (ONH) is related to increased neuronal activity elicited bydiffuse luminance flickering light stimulation. METHODS. ONH blood flow wasmeasured by laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized cats during 1 to 3 minutes of flickering light stimulation at controlled luminance and frequency (n = 227measurements in 18 cats) using either a conventional visual stimulator (repetitiveshort flashes) or a sinusoidally varying light stimulator. Potassium ion concentration([K+]) changes in the vitreous humor immediately in front of the optic disk weremeasured with neutral carrier K+ ionophore liquid membrane microelectrodes.Effects of varying flicker frequency (2 to 80 Hz) at constant luminance werequantified. Effects of luminance were quantified by varying the modulation depth of the stimulus at constant frequency. RESULTS. Both ONH blood flow and [K+]increased during flicker stimulus with an average slope of 0.305% +/- 0.064%(SE)/microM [K+] (257 measurements in 18 cats). The peak ONH blood flowincrease was 59% +/- 11% above baseline at 33.3 +/- 3.1 Hz. The peak [K+]increase was 188 +/- 42 microM above baseline at 38.3 +/- 3.3 Hz. Both ONH bloodflow and [K+] changes had similar bandpass characteristics with frequency, firstincreasing, then dropping off at higher frequencies (122 measurements in 10 cats).Both frequency responses were described by power law functions (y = af").Luminance responses for both ONH blood flow and [K+] changes could be fit by amodified Hill model and were 50% of maximum at light modulation depths of 21.2%+/- 4.6% and 22.5% +/- 3.7%, respectively (53 measurements in 5 cats).CONCLUSIONS. Increases in ONH blood flow were correlated with changes in[K+]. Both responses were remarkably similar, with no significant differences in thefrequency for peak responses in ONH blood flow or [K+], in low- and high-frequencypower law exponents of the two responses, or in the 50% response to lightmodulation. The results are consistent with close coupling of neuronal activity andONH blood flow.Schlagwörter  Animals; Biological Transport, Active; Blood Flow Velocityphysiology; Cats;Homeostasis; Laser-Doppler Flowmetry; Microelectrodes; Optic Diskblood supply;Optic Nervephysiology; Photic Stimulation; Potassiummetabolism; VitreousBodymetabolismBush, R. A.; Sieving, P. A. (1996): Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram. In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision, Jg. 13, H.3, S. 557–565. AbstractThe primate electroretinogram (ERG) recorded at the cornea in response to fastflickering light is thought to reflect primarily the cone photoreceptor potential. Weinvestigated the origin of the photopic 33-Hz corneal flicker ERG to square-waveand photostrobe flashes by recording in the monkey before and after blockingpostsynaptic responses with intravitreal injections of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyricacid and/or cis-2,3-piperidiendicarboxylic acid or sodium aspartate. Blockingpostsynaptic ON or OFF responses produced effects on the timing and thewaveform of the 33-Hz flicker ERG similar to changes in the b and the d waves inthe corneal single-flash ERG. When all the ERG waves of postsynaptic origin in theflash ERG were abolished the flicker response was greatly suppressed, suggestingthe postsynaptic cells producing the b and the d waves make major contributions to

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