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Table Of Contents

1.1 Why an understanding of steam is needed
1.2 Boiling: the change of state from water to steam
1.3.1 The Carnot cycle
1.3.2 The Rankine cycle
1.4 Thermal efficiency
1.5 The gas turbine and combined-cycle plants
1.6 Summary
1.7 References
2.1 Steam generation and use
2.2 The steam turbine
2.3 The condensate and feed-water system
2.4 The feed pumps and valves
2.5 The water and steam circuits of HRSG plant
2.6 Summary
3.1 The furnace
3.2.1 The air heater The stall condition Centrifugal-fan surge Types of damper Vane control Variable-speed drives Vertical-spindle ball mills Horizontal tube mills
3.3.2 Oil-firing systems
3.3.4 Waste-to-energy plants
3.4 Igniter systems
3.5 Burner-management systems
3.6 Gas turbines in combined-cycle applications
3.7 Summary
3.8 References
4.1 Nature of the demand
4.2 Setting the demand in power-station applications
4.3.1 Boiler-following operation
4.3.2 Turbine-following operation
4.3.3 Co-ordinated unit control
4.3.4 Relative performance Response of the boiler-following system Response of the turbine-following system
4.4 Load demand in combined heat and power plants
4.5 Waste-to-energy plants
4.6 Summary
5.1.1 A simple system: "parallel control"
5.1.2 Flow ratio control Using gas analysis to vary the fuel~air ratio Combining oxygen measurement with other parameters Using carbon-in-ash measurements
5.1.4 Multiple-burner systems
5.2 Working with multiple fuels Load control strategies for pressurised mills Load control systems for suction mills
5.3.2 Mill temperature control The challenge of hand/auto changeover Complexity of screen displays
5.4.1 Maintaining the furnace draught
5.4.2 Fan control The requirements for purge air Flame spectra Burner-management systems and plant safety
5.6 Summary
5.7 References
6.1 The principles of feed-water control
6.2.1 Two-element feed-water control
6.2.2 Three-element feed-water control
6.3.1 Using an external water column
6.3.2 Statutory requirements
6.3.3 Discrepancies between drum-level indications
6.3.4 Steam extraction
6.4.1 Valves
6.4.2 Quick-opening
6.4.3 Linear
6.4.4 Equal percentage
6.4.5 The valve sizing coefficient
6.4.6 Fail-s@ operation
6.4.7 Selecting the valve size
6.5 Pumps
6.6.1 Steam pressure control
6.6.2 Level control
6.6.3 Integrated level control
6.7 Summary
7.1 Why steam-temperature control is needed
7.2.1 The mechanically atomised attemperator
7.2.2 The variable-area attemperator
7.2.3 The variable-annulus desuperheater
7.2.4 Other types of attemperator
7.2.5 Location of temperature sensors Controller saturation effects Prevention of over-cooling Multistage attemperators
7.3 Temperature control with tilting burners
7.4 Controlling the temperature of reheated steam
7.5 Gas recycling
7.6 Summary
8.1.1 The central system cabinets
8.1.2 Termination and marshalling
8.1.3 Operator workstations
8.2 Interconnections between the systems
8.3 Equipment selection and environment
8.4.1 Site considerations
8.4.2 Actuators
8.4.3 The I/P converter
8.5 Electric actuators
8.6 Hydraulic actuators
8.7 Cabling
8.8.1 Earth connections
8.8.2 Cables: armouring, screening and glands Failure modes in electronic systems Voltage and current transmission Transmitters
8.10 Summary
8.11 References
9.1 Overview
9.2.1 The functional specification Making provision for site tests
9.3.1 The importance of agreement and co-ordination The levels of coding Explanation of the main coding principles
9.3.3 An example of how the codes are used
9.4 Summary
9.5 References
10.1 The reasons behind the changes
10.2.1 Defining the requirements for long-term support
10.2.2 Keeping track of costs
10.3 Making the decision to change
10.4 A refurbishment case study
10.5 Why refurbish?
10.6 Documenting the present system configuration
10.7 Summary
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Power Plant Control and Instrumentation the Control of Boilers and HRSG Systems (1)

Power Plant Control and Instrumentation the Control of Boilers and HRSG Systems (1)

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Published by Mike Mentzos

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Categories:Book Excerpts
Published by: Mike Mentzos on Dec 19, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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