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DongPhD_PBS_Topology_2009

# DongPhD_PBS_Topology_2009

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Topology
Hints and Solutions to Munkres’s Book
DongPhD (Editor)
DongPhD Problem Books
Series
υo.
1
Available at
James R. Munkres “Topology”-Prentice Hall, 2 ed. | 2000 | ISBN: 0139254951
1

DongPhD
2
Exercises
“Say what you know, do what you must, comewhat may.”- Sofia Kovalevskaya
Topological spaces, basis for a topology
Ex 13.1.
Le
be a topological space; let
A
be a subset of
. Supposethat for each
x
A
there is an open set
containing
x
such that
A
. Show that
A
is open in
.
Ex 13.2.Ex 13.3.Ex 13.4.
(a) If
{
τ
α
}
is a family of topologies on
, show that
∩{
τ
α
}
is a topology on
. Is
∪{
τ
α
}
a topology on X? (b) Let
{
τ
α
}
be a family of topologies on
. Show that there is a unique smallest topology on
containing all the collections
{
τ
α
}
,and a unique largest topology contained in all
{
τ
α
}
.(c) If
=
{
a,b,c
}
, let
τ
1
=
{∅
,X,
{
a
}
,
{
a,b
}}
and
τ
2
=
{∅
,X,
{
a
}
,
{
c,b
}}
.Find the smallest topology containing
τ
1
and
τ
2
, and the largest topology contained in
τ
1
and
τ
2
.
Ex 13.5.
Show that if
A
is a basis for a topology on
, then thetopology generated by
A
equals the intersection of all topologies on
that contain
A
. Prove the same if
A
is a subbasis.
Ex 13.6.
Show that the topologies of
R
l
and
R
- are not comparable.
Ex 13.7.
Consider the following topologies on R:
τ
1
= the standard topology,
τ
2
= the topology of
R
- ,
τ
3
= the finitecomplement topology,
τ
4
= the upper limit topology, having all sets
(
a,b
]
as basis,
τ
5
= the topology having all sets
(
−∞
,a
) =
{
x
|
x < a
}
as basis.Determine, for each of these topologies, which of the others it contains.
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DongPhD
3
Ex 13.8.
(a) Show that the countable collection
B
=
{
(a, b) | a < b, a and b rational
}
is a basis that generates the standard topology on
R
.(b) Show that the collection
C
=
{
[a,b)|a<b, a and b rational
}
is a basis that generates a topology different from the lower limit topology on
R
Subspace topology
Ex 16.9.
Show that if
is a subspace of
, and
A
is a subset of
, then the topology
A
inherits as a subspace of
is the same as thetopology it inherits as a subspace of
.
Ex 16.10.Ex 16.11.
Consider the set
= [
1
,
1]
as a subspace of
R
. Which of the following sets are open in
? Which are open in
R
A
=
{
x
|
12
<
|
x
|
<
1
}
B
=
{
x
|
12
<
|
x
|
<
1
}
=
{
x
|
12
|
x
|
<
1
}
D
=
{
x
|
12
|
x
|
1
}
=
{
x
|
0
<
|
x
|
<
1
and
1
x/
Z
+
}
Ex 16.12.
A map
:
is said to be an open map if for every open set
of
, the set
(
)
is open in
. Show that
π
1
:
×
and
π
2
:
×
are open maps.
Ex 16.13.
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