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# ch08

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11/28/2012

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8-1
CHAPTER EIGHT
8.1 a
.
()..
U T T
= +
2596002134
2
J/mol
()
()
U U
ref
0010028090
oooo
C J/mol C J/mol C (since U(0C)=0)
= = =

b.
We can never know the true internal energy.
()
100
o
C is just the change from
()
0
o
Cto
()
100
o
C.
c.
Q W U E
k p
= + +Δ Δ Δ

Δ Δ
E E
k p
= = =
000,,

Q
= = = Δ
(.)[()302809084288400mol J/mol] J J
d.
dU dT
v
=
G
= = +
[..]
2596004268 J/(molC)
o

ΔΔ Δ
()(..)..(.
((.[.().()]
U C T dT T dT U
v
= = + = +
OQPPGG
= = ⋅ + =
z
12
259600426825960042682303025961000002134100084288400
0100201002
J/molmol)J/mol)mol) (J/mol) J J
8.2 a.

C C R C
v p v
= = + ° °
353002918314..[.
b g b gb g
J/(molC)] [J/(molK)]1 K1C
= + °
C
v
27000291..[J/(molC)]
b.

]
1001002100252525
ˆ35.30.02912784 Jmol2
p
H C dT
Δ = = + =
∫

c.

Δ Δ Δ
.
U C dT C dT RdT H R
v p
= = = = =
z z
251002510025100
27848314100252160
b gb g
Jmol
d.

H
is a state property
8.3 a.

C T
v
[]...kJ/(molC)
o
= + × ×
00252154710301210
592
atm LatmL/(molK) Kmolmol) kJ/mol kJ) kJkJ
nPV  RT Q n U dQ n U T dQ n U T T d
= === = == = + × == = + × × =
(.)(.)(.[]().
(..().
(.[..].
(.)[...].2003000082062980245024500252602024500252154710791024500252154710301210767
1125100022525100033592251000
ΔΔΔ
%.error in =6.02-7.677.67
Q
1
100%215%
× = −
%.error in =7.91-7.677.67
Q
2
100%313%
× =

8-2
8.3 (cont’d)b.
C C R
p v
= +

C T T
p
[](...)....kJ/(molC)
o
= + × − × += + × ×
00252154710301210000831400335154710301210
592592

Q H n C dT T d
P
= == + × × = ×
Δ
12
024500335154710301210965
592251000
mol [kJ/(molC)]10 JPiston moves upward (gas expands).
o3
(.)[...].
c.
The difference is the work done on the piston by the gas in the constant pressure process.
8.4

a.
( )
( )
( )
( )
66
o5CH
40C0.126523.410400.1360 [kJ/(molK)]
pl
= + × =

b.
pv
d ib g b g b g b g
b g
CHo
66
C[kJ/(molC)40007406329510402520104077571040008684
582123
° = + × × + ×=
.....]
c.
ps
d ib g b g b g
b g
C
313 K0.009615 kJ/(molK)]
= + × − × =
001118109510313489110313
522
...[
d.
Δ
.....
H T T T
v
CH
66
3kJmol
b g
= +××+×
OQPP
=
007406329510225201077571043171
528312440300

e.
Δ
....
H T T
C s
b g
= +×+ ×
OQPP
=
00111810951024891103459
5221313573
kJ/mol
8.5
HO (v, 100C, 1 atm) HO (v, 350C, 100 bar)
2o2o

a.

H
= =
29262676250kJkg kJkg kJkg
b.
.....
H T T T d
= + × + × ×=
003346068861007604103593108845
582123100350
kJmol491.4 kJkg Difference results from assumption in (b) that
H
is independent of
P
. The numerical differenceis
Δ
H
forHOv, 350C, 1 atmHOv, 350C, 100 bar
22
° °
b g b g

8.6 b.

p
d i
nCH(l)o
614
kJ/(molC)
=
02163.

Δ
[.].
H d
= =
021631190
2580
kJ/mol The specific enthalpy of liquid n-hexane at 80
o
C relative to liquid n-hexane at 25
o
C is 11.90 kJ/mol
c.

C T T
p
d i
nCH(v)o
614
kJ/(molC)
= + × × + ×
[]....013744408510239210576610
582123

Δ
[....].
H T T T d
= + × × + ×
0137444085102392105766101107
5821235000
= kJ/molThe specific enthalpy of hexane vapor at 500
o
C relative to hexane vapor at 0
o
C is 110.7 kJ/mol. Thespecific enthalpy of hexane vapor at 0
o
C relative to hexane vapor at 500
o
C is –110.7 kJ/mol.

8-3
8.7

T T
° =° =°
CFF
b g b g b g
11832055561778...
C T
p
calmolCFF
° = + ° = + °
b g b g b g
68900001436055561778686400007978......
⋅°=°⋅° °=
E
C C
p p p
Btulb-moleFcal453.6 mol1 Btu1CmolC1 lb-mole252 cal1.8F
drop primes
b g b g
100.
C
p
Btulb-moleFF
° = + °
b g b g
686400007978..
8.8
C T T
p
d ib gb g
CHCHOH(l)o
32
100[kJ/(molC)]
= += +
010310158801031010310000557.....
Q H T
= = +
GOQP
×Δ
5507890103100005572
220785
...
.
Lsg1 L1 mol46.07 g=941.97.636 kJ/s = 7193 kW
kJmol


8.9 a.
,....,
Q H T T T d
= = + × × + ×=
Δ
500000336013671016071064731017650
582123100200
molskW
kJmol
b g


b.
Q U H PV H nR
= = = = =Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ
176505013490,.],kJ kmol8.314 [kJ/(kmolK)100 KkJ
b g b g b g
The difference is the flow work done on the gas in the continuous system.
c.
Q
=
heat needed to raise temperature of vessel wall + heat that escapes from wall tosurroundings.
8.10 a.

C
p p
is a constant, i.e. is independent of T.
b.
Q mC T Qm
p p
= =ΔΔ

Qm
p p
= = = = Δ
(16.73-6.14) kJ1 L86.17 g10 J(2.00 L)(3.10 K)659 g1 mol1 kJ=0.223 kJ/(molK)Table B.2 kJ/(molC) kJ/(molK)
3o
02160216..
8.11

H U PV H U R H  R  R
PV RT  p p p p
P
= + =====> = + =====>=+ =+
=
GGG

a f
But since
depends only on
,
G
= =
G
≡ ⇒ = +
dU dT C C C R
p v p v

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