Social Security Bulletin • Vol. 66 • No. 1 • 20053
creation of the Social Security program, it did not, ingeneral, shape its features.In Chart 1, a timeline of key milestones in the historyof the Social Security program is presented with anoverview of selected program changes and demographicevents, from the start of the program in 1935 up through2003.
1930s: Program Beginnings
The original Social Security Act of 1935 was amendedeven before the program became truly operational, butsome of the principles embodied in the Act still underliethe program today. In addition, the fundamental changesmade by the amendments in 1939 are, to a surprisingdegree, reflective of current policy debates regardingSocial Security.
The original Act provided for monthly retirementbenefits, payable to persons 65 and older who were nolonger working. The benefit formula was based oncumulative wages (earned since 1937) in coveredemployment (initially covering only about half the jobs inthe country, which were in commerce or industry).Specifically, monthly benefits equaled 1/2 of 1 percent of the first $3,000 of cumulative wages, plus 1/12 of 1percent of the next $42,000, plus 1/24 of 1 percent of thenext $84,000. So, for example, someone who retired inJanuary 1942 (when benefits were scheduled to begin)after earning a total of $6,000 during the 5-year periodfrom 1937 to 1941 would receive a benefit equal to$17.50 a month.
This can be thought of, loosely speak-ing, as a typical benefit because the average worker atthe time earned about $100 a month (which totals $6,000after 5 years).
Thus, although the Social Security Actwas enacted in the middle of the Great Depression, itoriginally envisioned relatively small benefits that werenot payable for several years.This preceding benefit formula never became opera-tional because of the amendments of 1939. Nevertheless,it does embody two important principles that still guidebenefit payments today: benefits depend on work incovered employment, and benefits replace a higherproportion of earnings for low earners.The 1939 amendments made a seemingly subtle but, inreality, a fundamental change to the benefit formula.Retirement benefits were to be based on average wages,not cumulative wages. Specifically, they equaled 40percent of the first $50 of average monthly wages(AMW) in covered employment, plus 10 percent of thenext $200 of AMW. This basic benefit was increased bya 1 percent bonus for each year the worker earned atleast $200 in covered wages. To illustrate, consider againthe worker who averages $100 a month during the period1937 to 1941 (that is, AMW = $100). The monthlyretirement benefit equals $26.25 in this case, or 50percent more than was payable ($17.50) under theoriginal Act. This specific result (more generous benefits)holds generally for persons reaching retirement in theearly years of the program. However, becausepolicymakers desired to make the amendments of 1939cost neutral over the long term, the reverse is true forthose who reached retirement after the Social Securityprogram had matured. For example, a worker retiring in1977 after 40 years in covered employment earning $100per month would receive $51.25 under the Act of 1935but only $35 under the amendments of 1939. In sum, withregard to retirement benefits, the amendments of 1939shifted benefit amounts to early participants in theprogram and away from later participants.Retirement benefits, under the 1935 Act, were to bepaid only if the individual was no longer engaged inregular employment. The 1939 amendments defined the
test of retirement
(commonly referred to as the
retire-ment earnings test
) as earnings of less than $15 amonth; earnings in excess of this amount precludedpayment of benefits. Changes to the earnings test are animportant policy theme in Social Security’s history. Infact, in 2000, the retirement earnings test was completelyrepealed for beneficiaries older than the currently definedfull retirement age. In 1939, the amendments to the Actalso ended what some have called the “money-back guarantee” provision. Under the Act of 1935, a lump sumequal to 3.5 percent of cumulative wages was issued toworkers who did not qualify for retirement benefits(because either they died before the age of 65 or theywere not insured under the program rules). For personswho did receive retirement benefits, the lump sum paid totheir estates upon death was equal to 3.5 percent of wages minus the sum of retirement benefits paid over theperson’s life. Because payroll taxes on the employee,under the 1935 Act, were not scheduled to rise above 3percent of wages, the provision guaranteed that allworkers in covered employment (or their estates) would,at minimum, have their payroll taxes refunded to them.The amendments of 1939 also ushered in one of themost fundamental developments in the program’s history,namely, the creation of dependent benefits and survivorbenefits. A wife of a retired worker was eligible for a 50percent benefit, provided she was at least 65. Agedwidows (and those caring for dependent children) wereeligible for benefits paid at a 75 percent rate. (Spouseand survivor benefits were not available to men until laterin the program’s history.) Dependent children of retiredor deceased workers received a 50 percent benefit. Theaddition of these benefits, coupled with the switch frombenefit computations based on cumulative wages to thosebased on average wages, reinforced the insuranceprinciples of the program and downplayed a savings or