Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1


Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,585|Likes:
Published by Umesh
Rhizobium, Azatobacter
Rhizobium, Azatobacter

More info:

Published by: Umesh on Sep 01, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





India is the second most populous country in the world. With the increasing population, the cultivable land resource is shrinking day to day. To meet the food, fiber, fuel, fodder and other needs of the growing population, the productivity of agricultural land and soil health needs to be improved. Green Revolution in the post independence era has shown path to developing countries for self-sufficiency in food but sustaining agricultural production against the finite natural resource base demands has shifted from the \u201cresource degrading\u201d chemical agriculture to a \u201cresource protective\u201d biological or organic agriculture. Green revolution technologies such as greater use of synthetic agrochemicals like fertilizers and pesticides, adoption of nutrient-responsive, high- yielding varieties of crops, greater exploitation of irrigation potentials etc. has boosted the production output in most cases. However, continuous use of these high energy inputs indiscriminately now leads to decline in production and productivity of various crops as well as deterioration of soil health and environments. The most unfortunate impact of Green Revolution Technologies on Indian Agriculture is as follows:

1. Imbalance in production
2. Dependency on synthetic chemical fertilizers
3. Increase in secondary & micronutrient deficiencies
4. Increase in pesticide use
5. Unscientific water management and distribution
6. Reduction in productivity
7. Reduction in quality of the produce
8. Extinction of gene pool
9. Environmental pollution
10. Imbalance in social and economic status

All these problems of GRT lead to not only reduction in productivity but also deterioration of soil health as well as natural ecosystem. Moreover, to day the rural economy is now facing a challenge of over dependence on outside inputs and day-by-day increase in price of these inputs. Further, Indian Agriculture will face the market competition due to globalization of trade as per World Trade Organization (WTO). Thus, apart from quantity, quality will be the important factor. Such varieties of concern and problems of modern Indian Agriculture gave birth to various new concepts of farming

such as organic farming, natural farming, biodynamic agriculture, do-nothing agriculture, eco-farming, etc. The essential concept of these practices remains the same, i.e., back to nature, where the philosophy is to feed the soil rather than the crops to maintain soil health and it is a means of giving back to the nature what has been taken from it (Funtilana, 1990). Therefore, for sustaining the productivity of the crop, maintaining the soil health and healthy ecosystem, there is need for adoption of an alternative farming system, may be the organic farming.

In most of the developing countries use of chemical fertilizers to increase the crop production is becoming highly essential. Biologically fixed nitrogen is such a source which can supply an adequate amount of nitrogen to the plants and other nutrients to some extent. It is a non hazardous way of increasing soil fertility. Biologically fixed Nitrogen consumes about 25 to 30% less energy than normally used in chemical process. Concentrations of elements in biofertilizers are within the tolerable range. As these plants multiplying rapidly, biofertilizers are required in less quantity. They are also adding some enzymes and growth promoting hormones in the soil. Dead and decaying organic matters increase the humus content of the soil. Hence biofertilizers are more beneficial than inorganic fertilizers.

The term \u2018biofertilizers\u2019 include selective microorganisms like fungi, bacteria and algae which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen or convert insoluble phosphate in the soil into forms available to plants. Biofertilizers are cost effective, eco-friendly and renewable sources of plant nutrients to supplement chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers also play a vital role in maintaining long term soil fertility and sustainability. In the strictest

sense real biofertilizers are the green manures and organics, materials of biological
origin which are added to deliver the nutrients contained in them.To d a y,Rhizobium
and Blue green algae can be considered as established biofertilizers along withAzolla,
Azospirillum, Azatobacter,and Rhizobium. The established biofertilizers should be

referred to as inoculants after the name of microorganisms they contain (Verma and Bhattacharya, 1994). Biofertilizers, more commonly known as microbial inoculants, are artificially multiplied cultures of certain soil organisms that can improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Although the beneficial effects of legumes in improving soil fertility was known since ancient times and their role in biological nitrogen fixation was

discovered more than a century ago, commercial exploitation of such biological processes is of recent interest and practice. The commercial history of biofertilizers began with the launch of \u2018Nitragin\u2019 by Nobbe and Hiltner, a laboratory culture of Rhizobia in 1895, followed by the discovery of Azotobacter and then the blue green algae and a host of other micro-organisms. Azospirillum and Vesicular-Arbuscular Micorrhizae (VAM) are fairly recent discoveries. In India the first study on legume Rhizobium symbiosis was conducted by N.V.Joshi and the first commercial production started as early as 1956. However the Ministry of Agriculture under the Ninth Plan initiated the real effort to popularize and promote the input with the setting up of the National Project on Development and Use of Biofertilizers (NPDB). Commonly explored biofertilizers in India are mentioned below along with some salient features.Rhizobium(RHZ): These inoculants are known for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with plants forming nodules in roots (stem nodules in sesabaniamrostrata). RHZ are however limited by their specificity and only certain legumes are benefited from this symbiosis.

Azotobacter(AZT): This has been found beneficial to a wide array of crops covering

cereals, millets, vegetables, cotton and sugarcane. It is free living and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organism that also produces certain substances good for the growth of plants and antibodies that suppress many root pathogens.

Azospirillum(AZS): This is also a nitrogen-fixing micro organism beneficial for non-
leguminous plants. Like AZT, the benefits transcend nitrogen enrichment through
production of growth promoting substances.
Blue green Algae (BGA) and Azolla: BGA are photosynthetic nitrogen fixers and are free

living. They are found in abundance in India i. They too add growth-promoting substances including vitamin B12, improve the soil\u2019s aeration and water holding capacity and add to bio mass when decomposed after life cycle. Azolla is an aquatic fern found in small and shallow water bodies and in rice fields. It has symbiotic relation with BGA and can help rice or other crops through dual cropping or green manuring of soil.

Phosphate solubilizing (PSB)/Mobilizing biofertilizer: Phosphorus, both native in soil
and applied in inorganic fertilizers becomes mostly unavailable to crops because of its
low levels of mobility and solubility and its tendency to become fixed in soil. The PSB

Activity (34)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
seenudev liked this
reddygona liked this
Subhra Jyoti Das liked this
Mudassir Wani liked this
reddygona liked this
csshirbhate liked this
Ankita Diwan liked this
shajeersalim liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->