Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
26Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Entomology lecture Handout

Entomology lecture Handout

Ratings:

4.0

(1)
|Views: 4,019|Likes:
Published by humanupgrade

More info:

Published by: humanupgrade on Sep 02, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/28/2013

pdf

text

original

 
PARASITOLOGY
Parasitology -
study of the life cycle, morphology, pathogenecity, transmission, epidemiology, and control (diagnosis,treatment, and prevention) of parasites
History
17th century -
mostly external parasites; fewexternal parasites (large)
Francesco Redi -
grandfather of Parasitology
Demonstrated obligatory parenthood inparasites
Leeuwenhoek -
described various kinds of microscopic animals
Linnaeus -
described and classified thehelminths
Rudolphi -
gave scientific names to parasiticworms
Leuckart -
demonstrated that insects serve asintermediate hosts and vectors of parasites
First nematodes recorded in the Philippines bySchneider (German biologist)
 Auchenatha corrolata
from the flying lemur (
Cyanocephalus volans)
Gnathostoma spinigerum
from the PhilippineCivet cat (
Paradoxorus philippinensis)
Trypanosoma evansi
first pathogenic protozoanparasite recorded in the Philippines in horses importedfrom India
Liborio Gomez -
grandfather of Philippine Parasitology
Candido Africa (MD) and Marcos Tubangui (DVM) -
fathers of parasitology
INTRODUCTION3 Categories of Symbiosis:
1.
Mutualism -
there is reciprocal advantage derivedfrom the union e.g. flagellate (
Trichonymphacampamula)
and wood termite (
Temopsisnevadensis).
Flagellate digest wood particle for thetermite while the latter gives protecti9on to theformer.
2.
Commensalisms -
only one symbiont is benefitedalthough the other suffers no harm e.g.
Entamoeba coli 
and small intestine of man.
3.
Parasitism -
one symbiont receives theadvantages to the detriment of the other e.g.
 Ascaris suis
and pig
Parasite -
an organism which for the purpose of procuring food and shelter, visits briefly or take up abode temporarily or permanently outside or inside the body of another organism where it usually does harm. The symbiont receiving theadvantage is known as the
 parasite
while the injured/harmed is the
host.
KINDS OF PARASITES
1.
Optional occasional parasite -
parasite thatbriefly visits their host to obtain nourishment butnot dependent upon them for either nourishmentor shelter e.g. mosquitoes, sandflies
2.
Obligate occasional parasites -
those that do notpermanently live upon their host but aredependent upon them for nourishment and tosome extent for shelter e.g. fleas and ticks
3.
Determinate transitory -
parasitism is limited to adefinite stage or stages in their life cycle, duringwhich time, parasitism is obligate or continuouse.g. botflies, marble flies e.g. larva of dipteran flieswhich are deposited in dead or living tissue
4.
Permanent parasite -
parasitism extends from thetime of hatching of the eggs to the time that theeggs are produced by the adult e.g. lice andmange mite
5.
Fixed parasite -
parasites that can not passspontaneously from one host to the other e.g.helminthes
6.
Erratic parasite -
those that occur in organs far remoter from their normal location e.g.
 Ascarissuis
in the fallopian tube, bile ducts of pigs;
Stephanurus dentatus
in the lungs
7.
Monoxenous parasite -
those that require only onehost to complete their life cycle e.g.
 Ascaridia galli 
inchicken and
Trichuris vulpis
in dogs
8.
Heteroxeneous parasite -
those that require 2 or more hosts to complete their life cycle- If 2 or more hosts are required, that host whereinsexual maturity (eggs and oocysts are formed) isreached is known as the primary host, definitive or final host; the other host in which the parasiteundergoes juvenile or larval development of asexualmultiplication in the secondary or intermediate host
e.g. Plasmodium sp
final host - mosquito;man - intermediate host
Fasciola gigantica - 
 
final host - cattle, goat;snail - intermediate host
Paragonimus westermani - 
 
final host –man; snail - 1st i.h.; crab - 2nd i.h)
9.
Pseudoparasites -
objects which are often mistakenfor true parasite eggs and larvae because itresembles them e.g. pollen grain, fungal spores,yeast cells, plant spines
10.
Ectoparasites or external parasites -
parasitesoccurring on the surface of the body e.g. ticks, lice,mites.
1
 
Infestation -
condition produced by externalparasites
11.
Endoparasites or internal parasites -
parasitesfound in the alimentary canal, blood, muscle, andother tissues of the host and the condition is termas
infection
e.g. roundworms, Plasmodia,coccidian
12.
Facultative parasites -
parasites that could existboth as free-living or parasitic e.g. larva of blowflies and flesh flies in tissues or woundscausing myiasis or in decomposing organic matter 
13.
Reservoir hosts -
final hosts that harbor theinfection but show no outward sign of infection.They serve as 'carriers', the organism multiply butnot enough to cause a disease e.g.
Trypanosomaevansi 
in carabaos
14.
Transport or paratenic host -
unnatural hosts inwhich parasites are accidentally lodged andtransmission is though ingestion of paratenic host.Parasites remain in a dormant osuspended/inhibited stage (no development andmultiplication) e.g.
Toxocara
eggs ingested by ratsor birds (paratenic hosts), when they are eaten bythe susceptible host the encysted larva develop intothe adult
15.
Prepatent period -
time of infection to the time eggsor larvae are demonstrated/produced in the feces tothe time eggs disappear 
16.
Parasitic zoonoses -
parasite transferable fromanimal to man and vice versa for parasites affectingman and animals e.g.
Trichenella spiralis,Entamoeba histolytica
17.
Parasitemia -
presence of parasites in the blood
18.
Zooparasite -
parasite that is highly specific for animals e.g.
Oxyuris equi 
19.
Anthropoparasite -
highly specific parasite for mane.g.
Enterobius vermicularis
20.
Anthropozooparasite -
equally specific for man andanimals e.g.
Trichinella spiralis
21.
Enzoonoses -
man is essential for the life cycle of the parasite e.g.
Taenia solium; T. saginata
22.
Parazoonoses -
unstable and changeable group;man is just accidentally involved e.g.
 Ascaris suis
Transmission of Disease by Arthropods
1.
Mechanical / Non-cyclical transmission -
when nochange in form or development occur in the arthropodbody e.g
T. evansi;
amoeba; helminth ova
2.
Biological transmission / Cyclical transmission -
there is change in form or development of the parasiteor orgaism in the body of the arthropod
>Types of Biological Transmission:
1.
Cyclopropagative transmission -
the organismundergoes cyclical changes or change in form aswell as in number (multiplication) in the body of thearthropod e.g
Plasmodia
in mosquito
2.
Cyclodevelopmental transmission -
theorganism undergoes cyclic development changingin form and size but no change in number, nomultiplication in the body of the arthropod e.g.
Dirofilaria immitis
in the mosquito
3.
Propagative transmission -
the organismundergoes multiplication in the arthropod but thereis no cyclical development or change in form andsize e.g.
Pasteurella pestis
in the gut of the rat flea(Bubonic plague)
3.
Transovarian transmission or hereditarytransmission -
transmission of infection is throughthe next generation of ticks. After the mature femaletick ingests the parasite, the parasite invades thedeveloping tick egg and when the young tickemerges, it carries with it the infective organism,then the mother dies after laying eggs e.g.
Babesia
in tick
4.
Transtadial -
organism is transmitted by the nextdevelopmental stage of ticks
5.
Phoresy -
transport of small parasite (lice and mites)by bigger parasite (flies, mosquitoes). Eggs of someflies are attached to abdomen of another fly,becomes hatched then deposited or transferred inanother host e.g.
Dermatobia hominis
egg in theabdomen of mosquito; when
Tabanus
feeds, it couldhave lice attached to its leg and transfer it to another host
Factors that influence the degree of harm done by various parasites are as follows:
1.Number of parasites present2.location of the parasite3.nature of their food4.movement of parasites5.Age of the host6.Virulence of the parasite
Effects of parasitic life on the parasites:
1.
Loss of certain sense organs - eye spots in someexternal parasites (
Melophagus ovinus)
2.
Loss of wings - bedbugs, lice
3.
Loss of alimentary canal – tapeworms
4.
Special development of some organs or adhesions
5.
Special development of organ of reproduction for fecundity. Some flukes lay 250,000 to 2 millioneggs/day. Reproductive organs occupy 2/3 of thebody cavity in general
6.
Sexual dimorphism - female are larger than male
7.
Complex life cycle - need for the intermediate host toincrease chances of perpetuating species;multiplication in the i.h.
8.
Greatly alters metabolism (some parasites can liveanaerobically). Internal parasites that liveanaerobically obtain energy by converting glycogeninto fat. Internal parasite absorbs nutrients andvitamins from the host body.
2
 
9.
Stay in the dormant/inhibited stage in the unnatural host (paratenic host) or even in the naturalhost (hypobiosis)
Pathogenic Effects of parasites
1.Absorb part of the digested nutrients, vitamins,and minerals2.Suck blood or lymph3.Mechanical obstruction or pressure4.Growth of nodules5.Development of tumors6.Cause wounds7.Destruction of tissues8.Irritation and annoyance - interferes with feedingwhich lead to loss of wt / meat / milk
9.
Secretion of toxins and other harmful substancesa.Anti-digestive enzymesb.Digestive enzymes harmful to host tissuec.Anti-coagulatory and hemolytic enzymesd.Other secretions and excretions and bodyfluids10.Transmits causal agents of some infectious diseases11.Reduce the resistance of the host to other infections12.Cause allergy (local or general)13.Serve as intermediate host and cyclic transmitter of certain parasites14.Abortion, infertility, lowered productive andreproductive performance15.Decreases feed conversion efficiency
Host specificity -
parasite species associate only with one species of host, and if a parasite has more than one host,these hosts are usually closely related; only few parasites can live in a variety or a wide range of hosts
Organ specificity -
each species of parasite has its predilection site in or on the host
ENTOMOLOGY
Entomology -
the study of arthropods and allied insects
General Characteristics of Arthropods:
1.bilaterally symmetrical(appendages are always paired)2.body divided into head, thorax, andabdomen3.joined with appendages
General structure and function
I.
Integument -
the body is covered by chitin; thisforms the typical body segment (sclerite) which aredivided into tergum (dorsal), sternum (ventral), andpleuron (lateral)
II.
Circulation -
the hemocoele is a space full of blood which bathes all body organs; the system iscomposed of an enlarged dorsal blood vessel(heart), pericardium (encloses the heart), pairedostia (opening in the pericardial walls), and shortarteries
III.
Respiration -
the arthropod may possess any or 2 of these short arteries
a.
Gills (bronchiae) -
found in larva, nymph, andadult aquatic species of various kinds
b.
Trachea -
fine elastic tubes in the chitinous liningwhich branches and ramifies among the internalorgans
c.
Lung book -
found in spiders
d.
Gill book -
found in crabs
e.
Spiracle -
smaller circular opening in theexoskeleton
IV.Digestion
a.
Foregut or stomodeum -
buccal cavity, pharynx,proventriculus, gizzard; involved in ingestion,passage, and disintegration of food particles
b.
Midgut or mesenteron -
storage of food andenzyme secretion
c.
Hindgut or proctodeum -
absorption of food andexpulsion of fecal materials
V.Excretion
a.
Paired nephridia –
crustaceans
b.
Malpighian tubules –
insects
c.Coxal glandsVI.Nervous system
a.Supraesophageal center (brain)b.Ganlionated ventral nerve cord
VII.Reproduction
a.
Male -
paired testes, vas deferens, paired seminalvesicle, penile organ
b.
Female -
paired ovaries, oviduct, uterus, vagina,spermatheca
Types of Development 
1.
Direct / incomplete metamorphosis / hemimetabolous life cycle -
1 or 2 of the stages are missing with theexception of the adult; hatched insect (nymph) is a miniature of the adult e.g. lice, bedbugs
2.
Indirect / Complete metamorphosis / holometabolous life cycle -
characterized by having the 4 stages: egg,larva, pupa, adult; the hatched insect differs morphologically from parent. Each form of the insect after eachecdyses is known as the
instar 
e.g. mosquitoes
3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->