condition produced by externalparasites
Endoparasites or internal parasites -
parasitesfound in the alimentary canal, blood, muscle, andother tissues of the host and the condition is termas
e.g. roundworms, Plasmodia,coccidian
Facultative parasites -
parasites that could existboth as free-living or parasitic e.g. larva of blowflies and flesh flies in tissues or woundscausing myiasis or in decomposing organic matter
Reservoir hosts -
final hosts that harbor theinfection but show no outward sign of infection.They serve as 'carriers', the organism multiply butnot enough to cause a disease e.g.
Transport or paratenic host -
unnatural hosts inwhich parasites are accidentally lodged andtransmission is though ingestion of paratenic host.Parasites remain in a dormant or suspended/inhibited stage (no development andmultiplication) e.g.
eggs ingested by ratsor birds (paratenic hosts), when they are eaten bythe susceptible host the encysted larva develop intothe adult
Prepatent period -
time of infection to the time eggsor larvae are demonstrated/produced in the feces tothe time eggs disappear
Parasitic zoonoses -
parasite transferable fromanimal to man and vice versa for parasites affectingman and animals e.g.
Trichenella spiralis,Entamoeba histolytica
presence of parasites in the blood
parasite that is highly specific for animals e.g.
highly specific parasite for mane.g.
equally specific for man andanimals e.g.
man is essential for the life cycle of the parasite e.g.
Taenia solium; T. saginata
unstable and changeable group;man is just accidentally involved e.g.
Transmission of Disease by Arthropods
Mechanical / Non-cyclical transmission -
when nochange in form or development occur in the arthropodbody e.g
amoeba; helminth ova
Biological transmission / Cyclical transmission -
there is change in form or development of the parasiteor orgaism in the body of the arthropod
>Types of Biological Transmission:
Cyclopropagative transmission -
the organismundergoes cyclical changes or change in form aswell as in number (multiplication) in the body of thearthropod e.g
Cyclodevelopmental transmission -
theorganism undergoes cyclic development changingin form and size but no change in number, nomultiplication in the body of the arthropod e.g.
in the mosquito
Propagative transmission -
the organismundergoes multiplication in the arthropod but thereis no cyclical development or change in form andsize e.g.
in the gut of the rat flea(Bubonic plague)
Transovarian transmission or hereditarytransmission -
transmission of infection is throughthe next generation of ticks. After the mature femaletick ingests the parasite, the parasite invades thedeveloping tick egg and when the young tickemerges, it carries with it the infective organism,then the mother dies after laying eggs e.g.
organism is transmitted by the nextdevelopmental stage of ticks
transport of small parasite (lice and mites)by bigger parasite (flies, mosquitoes). Eggs of someflies are attached to abdomen of another fly,becomes hatched then deposited or transferred inanother host e.g.
egg in theabdomen of mosquito; when
feeds, it couldhave lice attached to its leg and transfer it to another host
Factors that influence the degree of harm done by various parasites are as follows:
1.Number of parasites present2.location of the parasite3.nature of their food4.movement of parasites5.Age of the host6.Virulence of the parasite
Effects of parasitic life on the parasites:
Loss of certain sense organs - eye spots in someexternal parasites (
Loss of wings - bedbugs, lice
Loss of alimentary canal – tapeworms
Special development of some organs or adhesions
Special development of organ of reproduction for fecundity. Some flukes lay 250,000 to 2 millioneggs/day. Reproductive organs occupy 2/3 of thebody cavity in general
Sexual dimorphism - female are larger than male
Complex life cycle - need for the intermediate host toincrease chances of perpetuating species;multiplication in the i.h.
Greatly alters metabolism (some parasites can liveanaerobically). Internal parasites that liveanaerobically obtain energy by converting glycogeninto fat. Internal parasite absorbs nutrients andvitamins from the host body.