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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: ANUJ on Sep 02, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/13/2012

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Photovoltaics
Photovoltaic system'tree'inStyria, Austria
Photovoltaic system
(or 
PV
) is the field of technology and research related to theapplication of solar cellsfor  energyby converting solar energy (sunlight, includingultra violet radiation
 
) directly intoelectricity.Due to the growing demand for clean sources of  energy, the manufacture of solar cellsand photovoltaic arrays has expanded dramatically in recent years.
Photovoltaic production has been doubling every 2 years, increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002, making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology.
At the end of 2008, the cumulative global PV installations reached 15,200 megawatts, a 94% annual increase.
Roughly 90% of this generating capacity consists of grid-tiedelectrical systems. Such installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integratedwith farming and grazing)
or built into the roof or walls of a building, known asBuilding Integrated Photovoltaicsor BIPV for short.
 Net meteringand financial incentives, such as preferentialfeed-in tariffsfor solar- generated electricity, have supported solar PV installations in many countries includingAustralia,Germany,Israel,
 
[edit] Overview
Photovoltaic cells produce electricity directly from sunlightPhotovoltaics are best known as a method for generatingelectric power   by usingsolar  cellsto convert energy from thesunintoelectricity. The  photovoltaic effectrefers to  photons of light knocking electrons into a higher state of energy to create electricity. Theterm photovoltaic denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the device is entirely due to the transduced light energy. Virtually all photovoltaicdevices are some type of photodiode.Solar cells producedirect current electricity from light, which can be used to power  equipment or torecharge a battery. The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the majority of  photovoltaic modulesare used for grid connected power generation. In this case aninverter is required to convert the DC to AC. There is a smaller market for off grid power for remotedwellings, roadside emergency telephones,remote sensing, andcathodic protectionof   pipelines.Average solar irradiance, watts per square metre. Note that this is for a horizontal surface,whereas solar panels are normally propped up at an angle and receive more energy per unit area. The small black dots show the area of solar panels needed to generate all of theworld's energy using 8% efficient photovoltaics.Cells require protection from the environment and are usually packaged tightly behind aglass sheet. When more power is required than a single cell can deliver, cells areelectrically connected together to form photovoltaic modules, or solar panels. A singlemodule is enough to power an emergency telephone, but for a house or a power plant themodules must be arranged in multiples asarrays. Although the selling price of modules isstill too high to compete with grid electricity in most places, significant financialincentives in Japan and then Germany, Italy and France triggered a huge growth indemand, followed quickly by production. In 2008, Spain installed 45% of all photovoltaics, but a change in law limiting the Feed-in Tariff is expected to cause a  precipitous drop in installations there, from 2500 MW in 2008 to 375 MW in 2009.
Perhaps not unexpectedly, a significant market has emerged in off-grid locations for solar-power-charged storage-battery based solutions. These often provide the onlyelectricity available.
TheEPIA/Greenpeace Advanced Scenario shows that by the year 2030, PV systems could be generating approximately 1,864 GW of electricity around the world. This meansthat, assuming a serious commitment is made to energy efficiency, enough solar power 

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