)y usin% various methods to evaluate mem$rane interactions' some of the same investi%ators su$se4uently determined that phloretin and -etocholestanol interact ith the lipid layer and alter the structure' renderin% a %reater fluidity in the mem$rane (9ur. J. Pharm. )iopharm. 200;5!32,-3#.n the same issue of the 9uropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and )iopharmaceutics in hich these findin%s ere pu$lished' uner and :alenta pu$lished a study on the effects of phloretin on the topical permeation of lidocaine usin% one hydrophilic and three lipophilic delivery systems. he researchers conducted standard diffusion e&periments ith ran/ diffusion cells throu%h porcine sin' and found that phloretin enhanced lidocaine permeation 1.3,-fold in the hydrophilic formulation and 1.25- to 1.!-fold in the lipophilic formulations (9ur. J. Pharm. )iopharm. 200;5!30!-12#.ore recently' uner et al. shed li%ht on the mechanisms of action of phloretin and -etocholestanol. n increase in intercellular lipid $ilayer fluidity in the stratum corneum is thou%ht to confer the o$served penetration-enhancin% effects associated ith these compounds. 9valuation of the effects of these compounds on phase transition and enthalpy revealed that $oth compounds decrease the diffusional resistance of the stratum corneum to dru%s ith a hydrophilic-lipophilic e4uili$rium (nt. J. Pharm. 2005;2,1,-55#.
*esearchers evaluated the contri$ution of the ma<or phenolic phytochemicals in apples to the total antio&idant capacity of the fruit usin% a 2'2=-a/ino-$is(3-ethyl$en/othia/oline--sulfonic acid# radical scaven%in% assay. hey found a linear relationship $eteen phenolic concentration and total antio&idant activity' and estimated that the %reatest phenolic contri$ution to the total antio&idant capacity of apples as derived from 4uercetin' folloed in order $y epicatechin' procyanidin )(2#' phloretin' and chloro%enic acid' ith the contri$ution from vitamin + fallin% <ust ahead of that of phloretin (J. %ric. ood +hem. 2003;5151-20#.Phloretin has also recently $een studied in a com$ination solution. n a paper no under revie for pu$lication' >resa%o et al. evaluated the effects of a topical antio&idant formulation containin% phloretin' vitamin +' and ferulic acid in miti%atin% ultraviolet (?:#-induced harm. )iomarers of cutaneous dama%e' includin% the formation of sun$urn cells and thymine dimers' and the e&pression of matri& metalloproteinase-, and p53' ere assessed in 10 normal healthy volunteers. Pretreatment ith the antio&idant mi&ture effectively inhi$ited the deleterious effects of ?: irradiation and also prevented ?: e&posure from inducin% immunosuppressive effects.he investi%ators concluded that the dual role of phloretin' as a stron% antio&idant and penetration enhancer' helps to au%ment the availa$ility of the other antio&idants to the sin (>resa%o +' et al. Photoprotective effects of a topical antio&idant mi&ture containin% vitamin +' ferulic acid' and phloretin a%ainst ?:-induced o&idative stress in human sin. 8u$mitted for pu$lication' 2010#.
Skin Care Potential
n 200!' @in et al. isolated and identified 13 compounds from the ormosan apple (alus doumeri var. formosana#' a native aianese $otanical. he compounds' hich included 3-hydro&yphloretin' demonstrated potent antio&idant and cellular tyrosinase-reducin% activities in human epidermal melanocytes.