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Table Of Contents

§1 Digression on Sets
4 Basic Sets of Numbers
5 Describing a Set by Listing of Its Elements
7 Properties of Inclusion
8 To Prove Equality of Sets, Prove Inclusions
9 Inclusion Versus Belonging
10 Defining a Set by a Condition
Proofs and Comments
1 Definition of Topological Space
3 The Most Important Example: Real Line
5 Using New Words: Points, Open and Closed Sets
6 Set-Theoretic Digression. De Morgan Formulas
7 Properties of Closed Sets
10 Characterization of Topology in Terms of Closed Sets
11 Topology and Arithmetic Progressions
2 When a Collection of Sets is a Base
5 Infiniteness of the Set of Prime Numbers
6 Hierarchy of Topologies
1 Definition and First Examples
4 Subspaces of a Metric Space
6 Segments (What Is Between)
7 Bounded Sets and Balls
10 Openness and Closedness of Balls and Spheres
11 Metrizable Topological Spaces
14 Operations with Metrics
15 Distance Between Point and Set
16 Distance Between Sets
§5 Ordered Sets
3 Relation between Strict and Non-Strict Orders
5 Position of an Element with Respect to a Set
7 Topologies Defined by a Total Order
10 Cyclic Orders in Finite Set
11 Cyclic Orders in Infinite Sets
12 Topology of Cyclic Order
1 Topology for a subset of a space
2 Relativity of Openness
3 Agreement on Notations of Topological Spaces
§7 Position of a Point with Respect to a Set
1 Interior, Exterior and Boundary Points
4 Closure in a Metric Space
6 Closure and Interior with Respect to a Finer Topology
7 Properties of Interior and Closure
8 Compositions of Closure and Interior
9 Sets with Common Frontier
14 Limit Points and Isolated Points
§8 Set-Theoretic Digression. Maps
1 Maps and the Main Classes of Maps
3 Identity and Inclusion
1 Definition and Main Properties of Continuous Maps
2 Reformulations of Definition
4 Behavior of Dense Sets
6 Properties of Continuous Functions
7 Continuity of Distances
9 Gromov-Hausdorff distance
12 Functions on Cantor Set and Square-Filling Curves
13 Sets Defined by Systems of Equations and Inequalities
14 Set-Theoretic Digression. Covers
§10 Homeomorphisms
1 Definition and Main Properties of Homeomorphisms
4 More Examples of Homeomorphisms
5 Examples of Homeomorphic Spaces
6 Examples of Nonhomeomorphic Spaces
7 Homeomorphism Problem and Topological Properties
8 Information: Nonhomeomorphic Spaces
§11 Connectedness
1 Definitions of Connectedness and First Examples
3 Properties of Connected Sets
7 Connectedness and Continuous Maps
9 Intermediate Value Theorem and Its Generalizations
12 Applications to Homeomorphism Problem
§12 Path-Connectedness
4 Properties of Path-Connected Sets
6 Path-Connectedness Versus Connectedness
8 Connectedness of Some Sets of Matrices
§13 Separation Axioms
3 Coincidence Set and Fixed Point Set
10 Urysohn Lemma and Tietze Theorem
§14 Countability Axioms
1 Set-Theoretic Digression. Countability
2 Second Countability and Separability
3 Embedding and Metrization Theorems
6 Sequential Approach to Topology
§15 Compactness
3 Compactness in Terms of Closed Sets
5 Compact Sets Versus Closed Sets
8 Compactness and Continuous Maps
§16 Local Compactness and Paracompactness
2 One-Point Compactification
4 Locally Finite Collections of Subsets
6 Paracompactness and Separation Axioms
8 Application: Making Embeddings from Pieces
§17 Sequential Compactness
1 Sequential Compactness Versus Compactness
4 Non-Compact Balls in Infinite Dimension
Problems for Tests
§18 Multiplication
1 Set-Theoretic Digression. Product of Sets
3 Topological Properties of Projections and Fibers
5 Properties of Diagonal and Other Graphs
6 Topological Properties of Products
7 Representation of Special Spaces as Products
§19 Quotient Spaces
Relations
3 Topological Properties of Quotient Spaces
4 Set-Theoretic Digression. Quotients and Maps
into equivalence and partial order
11 Baricentric Subdivision of a Poset
§20 Zoo of Quotient Spaces
Space
2 Tools for Describing Partitions
4 Transitivity of Factorization
Operation
11 Set-Theoretic Digression. Sums of Sets
§21 Projective Spaces
1 Real Projective Space of Dimension n
2 Complex Projective Space of Dimension n
3 Quaternionic Projective Spaces
§22 Spaces of Continuous Maps
2 Topologies on Set of Continuous Mappings
3 Topological Properties of Mapping Spaces
5 Interactions With Other Constructions
6 Mappings X ×Y →Z and X →C(Y,Z)
§23 Digression. Generalities on Groups
2 Additive and Multiplicative Notations
§24 Topological Groups
1 The Notion of Topological Group
2 Examples of Topological Groups
§25 Actions of Topological Groups
1 Continuous Deformations of Maps
2 Homotopy as Map and Family of Maps
8 Two Natural Properties of Homotopies
§27 Homotopy Properties of Path Multiplication
1 Multiplication of Homotopy Classes of Paths
§28 Fundamental Group
1 Definition of Fundamental Group
6 Fundamental Group of Product
8 Fundamental Group of a Topological Group
§29 The Role of Base Point
1 Overview of the Role of Base Point
2 Definition of Translation Maps
Groups
§30 Covering Spaces
3 Local homeomorphisms versus coverings
§31 Theorems on Path Lifting
4 High-Dimensional Homotopy Groups of Covering Space
2 Fundamental Group of Projective Space
3 Fundamental Groups of Bouquet of Circles
4 Algebraic Digression. Free Groups
5 Universal Covering for Bouquet of Circles
1 Homomorphisms Induced by a Continuous Map
2 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
3 Generalization of Intermediate Value Theorem
§34 Retractions and Fixed Points
2 Fundamental Group and Retractions
§35 Homotopy Equivalences
2 Homotopy Equivalence as Relation
5 Deformation Retraction Versus Homotopy Equivalence
7 Fundamental Group and Homotopy Equivalences
§36 Covering Spaces via Fundamental Groups
1 Homomorphisms Induced by Covering Projections
5 Micro Simply Connected Spaces
§37 Cellular Spaces
1 Definition of Cellular Spaces
3 Further Two-Dimensional Examples
5 Topological Properties of Cellular Spaces
6 Embedding to Euclidean Space
§38 One-Dimensional Cellular Spaces
§39 Fundamental Group of a Cellular Space
1 One-Dimensional Cellular Spaces
4 Writing Down Generators and Relators
5 Fundamental Groups of Basic Surfaces
6 Seifert - van Kampen Theorem
§40 One-Dimensional Homology and Cohomology
2 One-Dimensional Integer Homology
3 Zero Homologous Loops and Disks with Handles
4 Description of H1(X) in Terms of Free Circular Loops
5 Homology and Continuous Maps
7 Cohomology and Classification of Regular Coverings
8 Integer Cohomology and Maps to S1
9 One-Dimensional Homology Modulo 2
§41 Locally Euclidean Spaces
1 Definition of Locally Euclidean Space
3 Making New Manifolds out of Old Ones
2 Isotopy of Embeddings and Sets
§44 One-Dimensional Manifolds
2 Reduction to Connected Manifolds
5 Lemma on 1-Manifold Covered with Two Lines
8 Consequences of Classification
§45 Two-Dimensional Manifolds: General Picture
§46 Triangulations
2 Triangulation as cellular decomposition
3 Two Properties of Triangulations of Surfaces
6 Subdivision of a Triangulation
Boundary
8 Triangulations in dimension one
9 Triangualtions in higher dimensions
§47 Handle Decomposition
2 Handle Decomposition of Manifold
3 Handle Decomposition and Triangulation
5 Cutting 2-Manifold Along a Curve
§48 Orientations
1 Orientations of Edges and Triangles
2 Orientation of Triangulation
2 Operations on Family of Polygons
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Elementary Topology in Problems

Elementary Topology in Problems

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Published by FilipII
This book includes basic material on general topology, introduces algebraic topology via the fundamental group and covering spaces,
and provides a background on topological and smooth manifolds.
This book includes basic material on general topology, introduces algebraic topology via the fundamental group and covering spaces,
and provides a background on topological and smooth manifolds.

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Published by: FilipII on Sep 03, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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