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Table Of Contents

§1 Digression on Sets
4 Basic Sets of Numbers
5 Describing a Set by Listing of Its Elements
7 Properties of Inclusion
8 To Prove Equality of Sets, Prove Inclusions
9 Inclusion Versus Belonging
10 Deﬁning a Set by a Condition
Proofs and Comments
1 Deﬁnition of Topological Space
3 The Most Important Example: Real Line
5 Using New Words: Points, Open and Closed Sets
6 Set-Theoretic Digression. De Morgan Formulas
7 Properties of Closed Sets
10 Characterization of Topology in Terms of Closed Sets
11 Topology and Arithmetic Progressions
2 When a Collection of Sets is a Base
5 Inﬁniteness of the Set of Prime Numbers
6 Hierarchy of Topologies
1 Deﬁnition and First Examples
4 Subspaces of a Metric Space
6 Segments (What Is Between)
7 Bounded Sets and Balls
10 Openness and Closedness of Balls and Spheres
11 Metrizable Topological Spaces
16 Distance Between Sets
§5 Ordered Sets
3 Relation between Strict and Non-Strict Orders
5 Position of an Element with Respect to a Set
11 Cyclic Orders in Inﬁnite Sets
12 Topology of Cyclic Order
1 Topology for a subset of a space
2 Relativity of Openness
3 Agreement on Notations of Topological Spaces
§7 Position of a Point with Respect to a Set
1 Interior, Exterior and Boundary Points
4 Closure in a Metric Space
6 Closure and Interior with Respect to a Finer Topology
7 Properties of Interior and Closure
8 Compositions of Closure and Interior
9 Sets with Common Frontier
14 Limit Points and Isolated Points
§8 Set-Theoretic Digression. Maps
1 Maps and the Main Classes of Maps
3 Identity and Inclusion
1 Deﬁnition and Main Properties of Continuous Maps
2 Reformulations of Deﬁnition
4 Behavior of Dense Sets
6 Properties of Continuous Functions
7 Continuity of Distances
9 Gromov-Hausdorﬀ distance
12 Functions on Cantor Set and Square-Filling Curves
13 Sets Deﬁned by Systems of Equations and Inequalities
14 Set-Theoretic Digression. Covers
§10 Homeomorphisms
1 Deﬁnition and Main Properties of Homeomorphisms
4 More Examples of Homeomorphisms
5 Examples of Homeomorphic Spaces
6 Examples of Nonhomeomorphic Spaces
7 Homeomorphism Problem and Topological Properties
8 Information: Nonhomeomorphic Spaces
§11 Connectedness
1 Deﬁnitions of Connectedness and First Examples
3 Properties of Connected Sets
7 Connectedness and Continuous Maps
9 Intermediate Value Theorem and Its Generalizations
12 Applications to Homeomorphism Problem
§12 Path-Connectedness
4 Properties of Path-Connected Sets
6 Path-Connectedness Versus Connectedness
8 Connectedness of Some Sets of Matrices
§13 Separation Axioms
3 Coincidence Set and Fixed Point Set
10 Urysohn Lemma and Tietze Theorem
§14 Countability Axioms
1 Set-Theoretic Digression. Countability
2 Second Countability and Separability
3 Embedding and Metrization Theorems
6 Sequential Approach to Topology
§15 Compactness
3 Compactness in Terms of Closed Sets
5 Compact Sets Versus Closed Sets
6 Compactness and Separation Axioms
7 Compactness in Euclidean Space
8 Compactness and Continuous Maps
§16 Local Compactness and Paracompactness
2 One-Point Compactiﬁcation
4 Locally Finite Collections of Subsets
6 Paracompactness and Separation Axioms
8 Application: Making Embeddings from Pieces
4 Non-Compact Balls in Inﬁnite Dimension
Problems for Tests
§18 Multiplication
1 Set-Theoretic Digression. Product of Sets
3 Topological Properties of Projections and Fibers
5 Properties of Diagonal and Other Graphs
6 Topological Properties of Products
7 Representation of Special Spaces as Products
§19 Quotient Spaces
Relations
3 Topological Properties of Quotient Spaces
4 Set-Theoretic Digression. Quotients and Maps
into equivalence and partial order
4 Transitivity of Factorization
Operation
11 Set-Theoretic Digression. Sums of Sets
§21 Projective Spaces
1 Real Projective Space of Dimension n
2 Complex Projective Space of Dimension n
3 Quaternionic Projective Spaces
§22 Spaces of Continuous Maps
2 Topologies on Set of Continuous Mappings
3 Topological Properties of Mapping Spaces
5 Interactions With Other Constructions
6 Mappings X ×Y →Z and X →C(Y,Z)
§23 Digression. Generalities on Groups
2 Additive and Multiplicative Notations
§24 Topological Groups
1 The Notion of Topological Group
2 Examples of Topological Groups
§25 Actions of Topological Groups
1 Continuous Deformations of Maps
2 Homotopy as Map and Family of Maps
8 Two Natural Properties of Homotopies
§27 Homotopy Properties of Path Multiplication
1 Multiplication of Homotopy Classes of Paths
§28 Fundamental Group
1 Deﬁnition of Fundamental Group
6 Fundamental Group of Product
8 Fundamental Group of a Topological Group
§29 The Role of Base Point
1 Overview of the Role of Base Point
2 Deﬁnition of Translation Maps
Groups
§30 Covering Spaces
3 Local homeomorphisms versus coverings
§31 Theorems on Path Lifting
4 High-Dimensional Homotopy Groups of Covering Space
2 Fundamental Group of Projective Space
3 Fundamental Groups of Bouquet of Circles
4 Algebraic Digression. Free Groups
5 Universal Covering for Bouquet of Circles
1 Homomorphisms Induced by a Continuous Map
2 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
3 Generalization of Intermediate Value Theorem
§34 Retractions and Fixed Points
2 Fundamental Group and Retractions
§35 Homotopy Equivalences
2 Homotopy Equivalence as Relation
5 Deformation Retraction Versus Homotopy Equivalence
7 Fundamental Group and Homotopy Equivalences
§36 Covering Spaces via Fundamental Groups
1 Homomorphisms Induced by Covering Projections
5 Micro Simply Connected Spaces
§37 Cellular Spaces
1 Deﬁnition of Cellular Spaces
3 Further Two-Dimensional Examples
5 Topological Properties of Cellular Spaces
6 Embedding to Euclidean Space
§38 One-Dimensional Cellular Spaces
§39 Fundamental Group of a Cellular Space
1 One-Dimensional Cellular Spaces
4 Writing Down Generators and Relators
5 Fundamental Groups of Basic Surfaces
6 Seifert - van Kampen Theorem
§40 One-Dimensional Homology and Cohomology
2 One-Dimensional Integer Homology
3 Zero Homologous Loops and Disks with Handles
4 Description of H1(X) in Terms of Free Circular Loops
5 Homology and Continuous Maps
7 Cohomology and Classiﬁcation of Regular Coverings
8 Integer Cohomology and Maps to S1
9 One-Dimensional Homology Modulo 2
§41 Locally Euclidean Spaces
1 Deﬁnition of Locally Euclidean Space
3 Making New Manifolds out of Old Ones
2 Isotopy of Embeddings and Sets
§44 One-Dimensional Manifolds
2 Reduction to Connected Manifolds
5 Lemma on 1-Manifold Covered with Two Lines
8 Consequences of Classiﬁcation
§45 Two-Dimensional Manifolds: General Picture
§46 Triangulations
2 Triangulation as cellular decomposition
3 Two Properties of Triangulations of Surfaces
6 Subdivision of a Triangulation
Boundary
8 Triangulations in dimension one
9 Triangualtions in higher dimensions
§47 Handle Decomposition
2 Handle Decomposition of Manifold
3 Handle Decomposition and Triangulation
5 Cutting 2-Manifold Along a Curve
§48 Orientations
1 Orientations of Edges and Triangles
2 Orientation of Triangulation
2 Operations on Family of Polygons
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Elementary Topology in Problems

Elementary Topology in Problems

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Published by FilipII
This book includes basic material on general topology, introduces algebraic topology via the fundamental group and covering spaces,
and provides a background on topological and smooth manifolds.
This book includes basic material on general topology, introduces algebraic topology via the fundamental group and covering spaces,
and provides a background on topological and smooth manifolds.

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Published by: FilipII on Sep 03, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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