§1 Digression on Sets

4 Basic Sets of Numbers

5 Describing a Set by Listing of Its Elements

7 Properties of Inclusion

8 To Prove Equality of Sets, Prove Inclusions

9 Inclusion Versus Belonging

10 Deﬁning a Set by a Condition

Proofs and Comments

1 Deﬁnition of Topological Space

3 The Most Important Example: Real Line

5 Using New Words: Points, Open and Closed Sets

6 Set-Theoretic Digression. De Morgan Formulas

7 Properties of Closed Sets

10 Characterization of Topology in Terms of Closed Sets

11 Topology and Arithmetic Progressions

2 When a Collection of Sets is a Base

5 Inﬁniteness of the Set of Prime Numbers

6 Hierarchy of Topologies

1 Deﬁnition and First Examples

4 Subspaces of a Metric Space

6 Segments (What Is Between)

7 Bounded Sets and Balls

10 Openness and Closedness of Balls and Spheres

11 Metrizable Topological Spaces

16 Distance Between Sets

§5 Ordered Sets

3 Relation between Strict and Non-Strict Orders

5 Position of an Element with Respect to a Set

11 Cyclic Orders in Inﬁnite Sets

12 Topology of Cyclic Order

1 Topology for a subset of a space

2 Relativity of Openness

3 Agreement on Notations of Topological Spaces

§7 Position of a Point with Respect to a Set

1 Interior, Exterior and Boundary Points

4 Closure in a Metric Space

6 Closure and Interior with Respect to a Finer Topology

7 Properties of Interior and Closure

8 Compositions of Closure and Interior

9 Sets with Common Frontier

14 Limit Points and Isolated Points

§8 Set-Theoretic Digression. Maps

1 Maps and the Main Classes of Maps

3 Identity and Inclusion

1 Deﬁnition and Main Properties of Continuous Maps

2 Reformulations of Deﬁnition

4 Behavior of Dense Sets

6 Properties of Continuous Functions

7 Continuity of Distances

9 Gromov-Hausdorﬀ distance

12 Functions on Cantor Set and Square-Filling Curves

13 Sets Deﬁned by Systems of Equations and Inequalities

14 Set-Theoretic Digression. Covers

§10 Homeomorphisms

1 Deﬁnition and Main Properties of Homeomorphisms

4 More Examples of Homeomorphisms

5 Examples of Homeomorphic Spaces

6 Examples of Nonhomeomorphic Spaces

7 Homeomorphism Problem and Topological Properties

8 Information: Nonhomeomorphic Spaces

§11 Connectedness

1 Deﬁnitions of Connectedness and First Examples

3 Properties of Connected Sets

7 Connectedness and Continuous Maps

9 Intermediate Value Theorem and Its Generalizations

12 Applications to Homeomorphism Problem

§12 Path-Connectedness

4 Properties of Path-Connected Sets

6 Path-Connectedness Versus Connectedness

8 Connectedness of Some Sets of Matrices

§13 Separation Axioms

3 Coincidence Set and Fixed Point Set

10 Urysohn Lemma and Tietze Theorem

§14 Countability Axioms

1 Set-Theoretic Digression. Countability

2 Second Countability and Separability

3 Embedding and Metrization Theorems

6 Sequential Approach to Topology

§15 Compactness

3 Compactness in Terms of Closed Sets

5 Compact Sets Versus Closed Sets

6 Compactness and Separation Axioms

7 Compactness in Euclidean Space

8 Compactness and Continuous Maps

§16 Local Compactness and Paracompactness

2 One-Point Compactiﬁcation

4 Locally Finite Collections of Subsets

6 Paracompactness and Separation Axioms

8 Application: Making Embeddings from Pieces

4 Non-Compact Balls in Inﬁnite Dimension

Problems for Tests

§18 Multiplication

1 Set-Theoretic Digression. Product of Sets

3 Topological Properties of Projections and Fibers

5 Properties of Diagonal and Other Graphs

6 Topological Properties of Products

7 Representation of Special Spaces as Products

§19 Quotient Spaces

Relations

3 Topological Properties of Quotient Spaces

4 Set-Theoretic Digression. Quotients and Maps

into equivalence and partial order

4 Transitivity of Factorization

Operation

11 Set-Theoretic Digression. Sums of Sets

§21 Projective Spaces

1 Real Projective Space of Dimension n

2 Complex Projective Space of Dimension n

3 Quaternionic Projective Spaces

§22 Spaces of Continuous Maps

2 Topologies on Set of Continuous Mappings

3 Topological Properties of Mapping Spaces

5 Interactions With Other Constructions

6 Mappings X ×Y →Z and X →C(Y,Z)

§23 Digression. Generalities on Groups

2 Additive and Multiplicative Notations

§24 Topological Groups

1 The Notion of Topological Group

2 Examples of Topological Groups

§25 Actions of Topological Groups

1 Continuous Deformations of Maps

2 Homotopy as Map and Family of Maps

8 Two Natural Properties of Homotopies

§27 Homotopy Properties of Path Multiplication

1 Multiplication of Homotopy Classes of Paths

§28 Fundamental Group

1 Deﬁnition of Fundamental Group

6 Fundamental Group of Product

8 Fundamental Group of a Topological Group

§29 The Role of Base Point

1 Overview of the Role of Base Point

2 Deﬁnition of Translation Maps

Groups

§30 Covering Spaces

3 Local homeomorphisms versus coverings

§31 Theorems on Path Lifting

4 High-Dimensional Homotopy Groups of Covering Space

2 Fundamental Group of Projective Space

3 Fundamental Groups of Bouquet of Circles

4 Algebraic Digression. Free Groups

5 Universal Covering for Bouquet of Circles

1 Homomorphisms Induced by a Continuous Map

2 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra

3 Generalization of Intermediate Value Theorem

§34 Retractions and Fixed Points

2 Fundamental Group and Retractions

§35 Homotopy Equivalences

2 Homotopy Equivalence as Relation

5 Deformation Retraction Versus Homotopy Equivalence

7 Fundamental Group and Homotopy Equivalences

§36 Covering Spaces via Fundamental Groups

1 Homomorphisms Induced by Covering Projections

5 Micro Simply Connected Spaces

§37 Cellular Spaces

1 Deﬁnition of Cellular Spaces

3 Further Two-Dimensional Examples

5 Topological Properties of Cellular Spaces

6 Embedding to Euclidean Space

§38 One-Dimensional Cellular Spaces

§39 Fundamental Group of a Cellular Space

1 One-Dimensional Cellular Spaces

4 Writing Down Generators and Relators

5 Fundamental Groups of Basic Surfaces

6 Seifert - van Kampen Theorem

§40 One-Dimensional Homology and Cohomology

2 One-Dimensional Integer Homology

3 Zero Homologous Loops and Disks with Handles

4 Description of H1(X) in Terms of Free Circular Loops

5 Homology and Continuous Maps

7 Cohomology and Classiﬁcation of Regular Coverings

8 Integer Cohomology and Maps to S1

9 One-Dimensional Homology Modulo 2

§41 Locally Euclidean Spaces

1 Deﬁnition of Locally Euclidean Space

3 Making New Manifolds out of Old Ones

2 Isotopy of Embeddings and Sets

§44 One-Dimensional Manifolds

2 Reduction to Connected Manifolds

5 Lemma on 1-Manifold Covered with Two Lines

8 Consequences of Classiﬁcation

§45 Two-Dimensional Manifolds: General Picture

§46 Triangulations

2 Triangulation as cellular decomposition

3 Two Properties of Triangulations of Surfaces

6 Subdivision of a Triangulation

Boundary

8 Triangulations in dimension one

9 Triangualtions in higher dimensions

§47 Handle Decomposition

2 Handle Decomposition of Manifold

3 Handle Decomposition and Triangulation

5 Cutting 2-Manifold Along a Curve

§48 Orientations

1 Orientations of Edges and Triangles

2 Orientation of Triangulation

2 Operations on Family of Polygons