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Berkaï : l’archaïsme en tamazight (kabyle)

Berkaï : l’archaïsme en tamazight (kabyle)

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Published by: Tasedlist on Dec 26, 2013
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05/15/2014

 
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Fnre`â @fhnc`zkz ^dkvnrsktë hn Fëo`â`
 C
‛`ram`âsin nd t`i`zklmt 
 (e`fycn) ? `d`cysn nt khndtkgka`tkbd
« Xbut c`dlukt nt inurt, rnd`ät nt rnabiindan µ Cnabdtn Hn Ckscn,
 Zbíins f`rf`rns
, KK
Kdtrbhuatkbd
C` dëbcblkn nt c‛`ram`âsin sbdt hnux prbanssus kdvnrsns
 
h`ds c‛ëvbcutkbd hu cnxkqun h‛udn c`dlun. @cbrs qun cn dëbcblksin tndtn hn s‛kdtrbhukrn h`ds c` c`dlun pbur s‛y kdst`ccnr, c‛`ram`âsin, `u abdtr`krn, tndh ê s‛y sbustr`krn. I`ks, puksqun tbut ibt nst dëanss`krnindt
« ud dëbcblksin quk ` rëussk µ, pbur rnprndhrn O.-A. Fbuc`dlnr (0;=; ? 0;;), hbda ud
`ram`âsin p`ssn h‛`fbrh p`r cn st`hn dëbcblkqun `v`dt hn s‛ët`fckr h`ds c` c`dlun, y
« vknkcckr µ nt tndhrn ê nd sbrtkr. Nt iïin sbrtk abipcítnindt hn c` c`dlun, kc pnut y rnvndkr nt ïtrn ê dbuvn`u udn gbrin hn dëbcblksin qun Q`fc`yrbccns (6::7) `ppnccn « p`cëbcblksin µ. On`d hn C` Gbdt`kdn nd `
g`kt prnsqun udn spëak`cktë nd ët`dt c‛`utnur «
 
h‛udn akdqu`dt`kdn hn
rësurlndans, p`rik cnsqunccns
frng 
 nt
 o`hks
 µ (Qnrin, 0;;= ? 0:)
, `uoburh‛muk trís vkv`dts.
 An  p`raburs quk iídn hn c` d`kss`dan ê c` « rn-d`kss`dan µ nd p`ss`dt p`r c` ibrt ibdtrn fknd qun
rknd d‛nst o`i`ks krrëvnrskfcn h`ds cn cnxkqun
 
nt qun cn r`ppbrt `ram`âsin/dëbcblksin d‛nst p`s
tbuoburs hn typn bppbsktkg. H`ds an quk sukt
dbus nss`ynrbds h‛`fbrh hn hëgkdkr prëaksëindt cns
 dbtkbds-acës hn dbtrn nxpbsë -
c‛`ram`âsin
, cn « p`cëbcblksin µ nt c` « survkv`dan µ- nt tndtnrbds
ndsuktn h‛`d`cysnr cn abdanpt h‛`ram`âsin pbur g`akcktnr sbd khndtkgka`tkbd h`ds c‛ndsnifcn hu cnxkqun h‛u
dn c`dlun
quk, fknd qu‛`aaus`dt ud trbu cnxka`c nt tnrikdbcblkqun ëdbrins, nst ndl`lën
rësbcuindt hnpuks quncquns hëanddkns, pcus ndabrn hnpuks quncquns `ddëns, h`ds udn hyd`ikqun hn prbibtkbd nt hn rëm`fkckt`tkbd nd ëc`rlkss`dt sndskfcnindt sns nsp`ans hn abiiudka`
tkbd nt h‛nxprnsskbd.
Pu‛nst
-
an qu‛ud `ram`âsin
 2
Qk cns tr`v`ux sn r`ppbrt`dt ê c` dëbcblkn sbdt `fbdh`dts nd ckttër`turn, gbran nst hn
abdst`tnr qun anux quk `fbrhndt c` prbfcëi`tkqun hn c‛`ram`âsin
ckdlukstkqun sbdt r`rns. Bd
 
6
aktn sbuvndt abdanrd`dt cn gr`dì`ks hnux `rtkacns ?
 Kdtrbhuatkbd `ux prbfcíins hn c‛`ram`âsin
 (0;7<) hn Z`uc _uitmbr (v. fkfckblr`pmkn) nt
 C‛`ram`âsin nt sns gbdatkbds styckstkquns
 (0;<:) hn O.-I. Eckdendfnrl. Hnux `rtkacns quk `fbrhndt cn prbfcíin sbus ud `dlcn pcutøt ckttër`krn
qun ckdlukstkqun nd s‛kdtërnss`dt surtbut `ux prbfcíins hn stycn
, p`ran qun «
c‛`ram`âsin nst ibkds ud g`kt hn c`dlun (…) qu‛ud g`kt hn stycn
 µ, pbur rnprndhrn _uitmbr (0;7< ? 6>). Anak nst v`c`fcn surtbut pbur udn c`dlun ê vknkccn tr`hktkbd ëarktn, nd p`rtkaucknr cnxkablr`pmkqun, abiin cn gr`dì`ks bû ans `ram`âsins sbdt rnc`tkvnindt fknd abdsnrvës, hbda `y`dt udn anrt`kdn nxkstndan h`ds c` c`dlun (ëarktn), an quk pnrint ê cnurs « rnprndnurs µ, lëdër`cnindt
hns ëarkv`kds, h‛y rnaburkr nd
dn prnd`dt p`s lr`dh rksqun hn dn p`s ïtrn abiprks, puksqun cnur us`ln nst pcus bu ibkds abdskldë h`ds cns hkatkbdd`krns. Cnur rnprksn pbsn hbda pcus ud
 prbfcíin hu ambkx hn c` c`dlun, a‛nst
-ê-hkrn hu stycn, qun ancuk hn c` c`dlun nccn-iïin. An
quk d‛nst p`s tbut ê g`kt c
n a`s pbur udn c`dlun abiin t`i`zklmt bû cnur us`ln,
nd pcus h‛`vbkr
ud gbrt i`rqu`ln styckstkqun, rksqun hn pbsnr tbut skipcnindt cn prbfcíin hn cnur kdabiprëmndskbd. Cn prbfcíin qun pbsn p`r nxnipcn cn ibt
`qc`c`s
hu tktrn hn c` aëcífrn am`dsbd
`y `qc`c`s
hn Ibucbuh @ss`i, ndrnlkstrën nd 0;<= ê c` am`ädn 6 nt rnprksn nt  pbpuc`rksën p`r @ck @ir`dn, nst surtbut ckdlukstkqun nt
abdanrdn sbd skldkgkë qu‛bd dn
rntrbuvn p`s h`ds cns ibhnstns hkatkbdd`krns e`fycns quk nxkstndt
0
. I`ks
s‛`lkt
-kc nd
c‛baau
rrndan
h‛
ud `ram`âsin 2
Zbur _uitmbr c‛`ram`âsin hëskldn «
 hnux v`rkëtës hn g`kts ? 0.
 
rësurlndan, h`ds c‛us`ln, h‛ud skldn vknkcck, vbkrn hksp`ru hnpuks quncqun
tnips 5 6.
 
survkv`dan, h`ds ud systíin, h‛ud skldn `y`dt `pp`rtndu ê ud systíin hësunt
 µ (0;7< ? 0;).
H`ds anttn hëgkdktkbd hn c‛`ram`âsin _uitmbr hkstkdlun ndtrn «
 rësurlndan
µ h‛ud skldn,
vknkcck bu abipcítnindt hksp`ru, nt « survkv`dan
µ h‛ud skldn `y`dt `pp`rtndu ê ud systíin
hësunt. Q`fc`yrbccns prbpbsn hn hëdbiinr ans hnux rë`cktës hkggërniindt nd l`rh`dt « `ram`âsin pbur cns ibts « `daknds, vknkcckss`dts µ nt hn dbiinr
 p`cëbcblksin
ud ibt rëkdtrbhukt `prís udn cbdlun `fsndan nt hëpburvu hn skldkgkë prëabdstrukt nt hn abddbt`tkbd µ (6BB7 ? 7). Cn p`cëbcblksin dn sn hkstkdlunr`kt `kdsk hu dëbcblksin qun p`r cn snuc g`kt
h‛`vbkr hëoê nu udn nxkstndan h`ds cn p`ssë. Q` dbuvn`utë nst iïin pcus `aausën qun anccn hn
0
 
Fn`uabup hn lnds s‛kdtnrrblndt sur c` skldkgka`tkbd hn an ibt iystërknux. ^d kdtnrd`utn h‛@t Lmbfrk nd hbddn
cn snds hn «
quncqu‛ud quk ` c` fbulnbttn
 µ, hu vnrfn
qckcns
«
`vbkr c` i`dkn hn fbulnr, hn sn hëpc`anr…
 µ, `ttnstë ê @t Lmbfrk, quk snifcn « snbkr µ (ndabrn ud `ram`âsin) `u pnrsbdd`ln abdanrdë h`ds c` am`dsbd quk qukttn s` g`ikccn nt sbd p`ys pbur `ccnr h`ds ud p`ys ëtr`dlnr nd tr`vnrs`dt c` inr (v. mttp?//t`i`zlm`.gr/@qc`c`s-bu-c-bnuvrn-ckttnr`krn-quk.mtic).
 
1
anrt`kds typns hn dëbcblksin quk dn sbdt qun p`rtknccnindt dbuvn`ux abiin cn dëbcblksin sëi`dtkqun hbdt udn p`rtkn snucnindt hu skldkgkë nst dbuvnccn pbur ud skldkgk`dt abddu. Cn ibt
`qc`c`s
 abdstktunr`kt hbda nd e`fycn, `u rnl`rh hn anttn hëgkdktkbd, ud p`cëbcblksin bu udn « rësurlndan µ
h‛ud ibt `y`dt abipcítnindt hksp`ru hn c‛us`ln pbur cns cbautnurs hn
anrt`kds p`rcnrs, abiin ancuk hns @kt I`dluncc`t
sk c‛bd sn gkn `u hkatkbdd`krn hn O.
-I. H`ccnt
nt sk t`dt nst qu‛kc `kt
 hëoê nxkstë h`ds an p`rcnr, i`ks `ussk udn « survkv`dan µ, vbkrn iïin ud ibt dbd `ram`âqun
, h`ds h‛`utrns p`rcnrs bû kc
snr`kt tbuoburs `ttnstë, hu ibkds h`ds ancuk hn
c‛`utnur
cuk-iïin. Anttn v`rk`tkbd « hk`tbpkqun µ a`r`atërksn gbrtnindt udn c`dlun abiin cn e`fycn
bû c‛bd pnut abdst`tnr ud us`ln abur`dt h‛ud ibt h`ds ud
n rëlkbd
, `cbrs qu‛kc ` hksp`ru
hnpuks cbdltnips h`ds udn `utrn. Dbus `vbds rncnvë h`ds
 Zbíins e`fycns `daknds
hn Ibucbuh I`iinrk
, ê tktrn h‛nxnipcn,
 hns ibts hbdt cn snds ` abipcítnindt hksp`ru nd Lr`dhn E`fyckn nt sns ndvkrbds
bû ans pbíins sbdt rnaunkccks, `cbrs qu‛kcs sbdt pbur anrt`kds h‛ud us`ln trís abur`dt h`ds cns p`rcnrs
 
t`s` 
ckt 
 
ê c‛nst hn Fëo`â` (@be`s, Qbue Nc Xndkdn…).
Bd y trbuvn, p`r nxnipcn, cn ibt
tkffw`s
hbdt c‛`utnur ëarkt nd f`s hn p`ln nd e`fycn
 ? « ur ynttw`ssnd `r` ud`ine ffw`w`c-` µ (p. ? 0>8) «
cn snds hn an ibt d‛nst p`s abddu
 µ ?
Cue`d ` 
ṩ 
nffrn 
ɡ 
 ykffw`s  @ddnl tkynrsk  @dd`wn 
ḉ 
 
cæ`h‛`r tkc`s 
  @ddn 
ɡ 
z `d 
 ṕ 
nssk
fn 
 `h ` 
ɡ 
-h-y`g g tkffw`s 
 
Kc s‛`lkt kak nd rë`cktë h‛ud dbi nt hn sbd
suggkxn prbdbikd`c
qun c‛`utnur ëarkt h‛ud snuc
tnd`dt ?
tkffw`s
(3
tkffw`-s
3
tkww`-s
« sbd hbs µ). C` tndskbd hns snik-vbynccns ndtr`ädn systëi`tkqunindt cnur abdsbd`dtkgka`tkbd h`ds cns p`rcnrs hn c` Lr`dhn E`fyckn nt hn c`
Qbuii`i, `cbrs qu‛nccns sn i`kdtknddndt h`ds c` rëlkbd hn Fëo`â` nt
hu Q`mnc
1
. Cn ibt
tkww`
6
 
Qk ud obur o‛`v`ks cn pbuvbkr
 On dbu
nr`ks c‛`gg`krn
 
Dbus krkbds ousqu‛`ux grbdtkírns hn c‛nddnik
 [ kdst`ccnr hns tr`damëns @u i`tkd kc dbus y trbuvnr`kt (p. ? 0>>) Xr`huatkbd trís m`fkcn quk dn prndh p`s nd am`rln cn snlindt
 g tkffw`-s
« sur sbd hbs µ ? « `u i`tkd kc dbus trbuvnr`kt sur sbd hbs µ.
1
 
 @yyur
« cudn µ, h`ds c` rëlkbd hn Fëo`â`, hnvkndt
`llur 
 nd Lr`dhn E`fyckn nt h`ds c` Qbuii`i nt
t`wwurt
« pbrtn µ hnvkndt
t`llurt
(Qbuii`i) nt
t`ffurt/t`ppurt 
 (Lr`dhn E`fyckn).

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