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Nutrition Summary

Nutrition Summary

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Published by: prameeta on Sep 03, 2009
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07/25/2010

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Maris Stella High School Name: ___________________ GCE O Level Biology Class (Index No.): ____ ( )Revision Summary Date:_____________ 
Class Components Sources Importance
Monosaccharides (simplesugars)Examples:
o
Glucose
o
Fructose
o
Galactose
o
All are Reducingsugars (sweet fruits &honeys)Disaccharides (Complexsugars)
o
Formed when 2 simplesugars combine withelimination of a water moleculeExamples:
o
Maltose (Reducing) =Glucose + Glucose
o
Lactose (Reducing) =Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose (non-reducing) =Glucose + FructoseCarbohydrates(containC, H, O)(H: O ratio =2:1)Polysaccharides(Macromolecules)
o
Made up of thousandsof simple sugar units(glucose)Examples:
o
Starch (green plts)
o
Glycogen (animals)
o
Cellulose (plants)
o
In each, the glucose islinked differently
o
Main source of energy
o
To form supportingstructures (eg.Cellulose cell wallin plts)
o
Converted to other organic compoundseg. Fats & aminoacids
o
For formation of nucleic acids (DNA)
Class Components Sources Importance
Fats(containC, H, O), but
less
 
O
 compared toCarbohydrates(H:O > 2:1)Fats: solid at r.t.pOils: liquid at r.t.pFats = Fatty acids +Glycerol
o
Meat, Milk, lard, butter, eggyolk (from animals)
o
Oils in nuts and seeds(from plants)
o
As a source of energy
o
To form part of the cellmembrane
o
As solvents for fat-soluble vitamins andsome hormones
o
As an insulator toprevent excessive heatloss from skinProteins(containC, H, O,
N
)Made up of amino acidsEach protein is unique
 may contain some or all of the amino acid molecules
the way each a.a isarranged determines whattype of protein it is
o
Lean meat, fish, eggs, milk,cheese (from animals)
o
Beans & Cereals (fromplants)
o
For growth & repair of worn-out parts, newprotoplasm
o
Source of energy
o
For producingenzymes, hormones,antibody, haemoglobin,etc
Nutrition
 
 
 
Absorption Process
 
Assimilation
Water &mineralsalts
Absorbed by
LargeintestineSimple sugars + mineral salts +vitamins + amino acids
Pass throughvilli
Blood capillariesOther parts of bodyFatty acids GlycerolReact with bile saltsSoluble soaps
Form
 
Diffuse into villi epitheliumSoluble soaps + glycerol --> small fat globulesAbsorbed by lymphatic capillariesSimple sugars + amino acids
Hepatic portalvein
In Liver Excess glucose --> glycogenExcess amino acids --> urea
RemainingHepatic vein
Distributed round body & usedSimple sugarsAmino acidsTissue respiration Growth & repair of worn-out body partsUsed as building blocks of enzymesand hormones
 
 
Functions of Liver
Fats
Enter 
Lymphatic capillariesFatsExcess fatsGlucose insufficientStored in adipose tissues
 
Fat storage
 
InsulationFats transported toliver --> convertedto oxidizable formsFats + Lymph
Form
ChyleTransported in LymphvesselsLiver PhysicalDigestionBile production
stored ingall bladder AssimilationRegulation of bloodglucose levelDeamination of excess aminoacids
urea
Fasting (glucagonconverts)
Glycogen
Glucose
enter into bloodstreamGlucose
Glycogen
storedBreakdown of RBC in spleen
Release Hb back to
Protein synthesisDetoxification Eg. Breakdownof alcohol
 acetaldehyde(harmless)Excessivealcoholconsumptionleads toLiver cirrhosis
liver cells killed
 replaced with fibrous tissue
liver failure
OtherwiseAfter heavy mealinsulin converts
Stimulate HCl (acidic) secretion in the stomach

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