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English Grammar - Coordination

English Grammar - Coordination

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Published by butterball
grammar clauses coordinator
grammar clauses coordinator

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Published by: butterball on Sep 03, 2009
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07/06/2013

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COORDINATION
A. What is COORDINATION? - A way of joining clauses, or clause elements with coordinators such as
and
,
or
and
but
1.
 
Jane is a good teacher and her students really like her.The first part (Jane is a good teacher) is a B
 
ARE COORDINATE the second And her students really likeher is an E
 
XPANDED COORDINATE.B. How is it different from subordination? - The units are on the
same syntactic level
whereas insubordination one of the two units is
a constituent
of the other. -EXAMPLES:2.
 
They are my neighbours but I don’t know them well. (two clauses) - COORDINATION3.
 
I don’t know where they are staying (direct obj. of the clause) - S
 
UBORDINATIONC. Basic Forms of coordination - Coordination with a coordinator is SYNDETIC (or BINARY), withoutis ASYNDETIC,with repeated coordinators , is POLYSYNDETIC (or MULTIPLE)4.
 
Slowly
and
stealthily, he crept towards his victim (Syndetic)5.
 
Slowly, stealthily, he crept towards his victim (asyndetic)6.
 
The wind roared
and
the lightning flashed
and
the clouds raced across the sky. (Polysyndetic)D.(i) Uses of 
AND:
 AND indicates that there is some relation between the contents of the linked clauses. The relation cangenerally be made explicit by the addition of an adverbial, as indicated in parentheses in the examples:(a) The event in the second clause is chronologically sequent to that in the first:7.
 
I washed the dishes and (then) I dried them.(b) The event in the second clause is a consequence or result of the event in the first:8.
 
He heard an explosion and he (therefore) phoned the police.(c) The second clause introduces a contrast:9.
 
Peter is secretive and (in contrast) David is open.(d) The first clause has concessive force:10.
 
She tried hard and (yet) she failed.(e) The first clause is a condition of the first:11.
 
Give me some money and (then) I'll do the shopping.(f) The second clause makes a point similar to the first:12.
 
A trade agreement should be no problem, and (similarly) a cultural exchange could be easilyarranged.(g) The second clause is a 'pure' addition to the first:13.
 
He has long hair and (also) he often wears jeans.(h) The second clause adds an appended comment on, or explanation of, the first:14.
 
They disliked John - and that's not surprising in view of hisbehaviour. There's only one thing todo now - and that's to apologize.D (ii) Uses of 
Or
(a) Typically, OR is exclusive: it excludes the possibility that the contents of both clauses are true or are to be fulfilled:
 
15.
 
You can sleep on the couch in the lounge or you can go to a hotel.Even when both alternatives are clearly possible, or is normally interpreted as exclusive:16.
 
You can boil yourself an egg or (else) you can make some sandwiches.(b) Sometimes
or
is inclusive. We can add a third clause that makes this inclusive meaning explicitly:17.
 
You can boil an egg, (or) you can make some sandwiches, or you can do both. And can replace or in its inclusive meaning.(c) The alternative expressed by or may also be a restatement or a corrective to what is said in the firstconjoin:18.
 
They are enjoying themselves, or (at least)/(rather) they appear to be enjoying themselves.(d) In addition to introducing alternatives as indicated above,
or 
may imply a
 NEGATIVE CONDITION
.
 
Thusin:19.
 
Switch on the radio
or 
we'll miss the news.the implication can be paraphrased by the negative conditional clause:20.
 
Switch on the radio.
 If you don't switch on the radio,
we'll miss the news.D (iii) Uses of 
BUT
 
 But 
expresses
 
a contrast(a) The content of the second clause is unexpected in view of the content of the first:21.
 
John is poor,
but 
he is happy.(In this use,
but 
can be replaced by
and yet.)
 (b) The second clause expresses in positive terms what the negation in the first clause conveys:22.
 
Jane did
not 
waste her time before the exam,
but (on the contrary)
studied hard every evening.23.
 
I am
not 
objecting to his morals
but 
rather to his manners.In this use,
but 
can be emphasized by the conjuncts
on the contrary
or 
rather.
It normally does not link two clauses, but two lesser constituents.E. CORRELATIVES:
EITHER... OR, BOTH,..AND, NEITHER... NOR 
The first word of correlatives is an endorsing item and the second is a coordinator.E(i) Either . . . or emphasizes the exclusive meaning of 
or
.The linked units may be complete clauses or lesser constituents:24.
 
Either the room is too small or the piano is too large.25.
 
You may either stand up or sit down.26.
 
Either Sylvia or her sister will be staying with us.E(ii) Both . . . and emphasizes the additive meaning of 
and
27.
 
David both loves Joan and wants to marry her.28.
 
This new machine will both accelerate the copying process and improve the quality of reproduction.29.
 
Both Mary and Peter washed the dishes.30.
 
The regulations are both very precise and very detailed.It also singles out the segregatory meaning of 
and
rather than the combinatory meaning:31.
 
Both David and Joan got divorced, [not from each other]E. (iii) Neither... nor is the negative counterpart of 
both
...
and
. It emphasizes that the negation applies to both units:
 
32.
 
David neither loves Joan, nor wants to marry her.33.
 
Mary was neither happy nor sad.34.
 
 Neither Peter nor his wife wanted the responsibility.F. (i) -
Nor
and
neither
as negative adverbs Nor and neither, followed by subject-operator inversion, can be used without being a correlative pair.They generally presuppose that a previous clause is negative either explicitly, or implicitly.35.
 
He did not receive any assistance from the authorities, neither did he believe their assurance thataction would soon be taken. (explicit negative in previous clause)36.
 
Many people are only dimly aware of the ways in which the environment can be protected. Nor have governments made sufficient efforts to educate them. ( implicit negative in previous clause)37.
 
All the students were obviously very miserable. Nor were the teachers satisfied with theconditions at the school.F. (ii) -
Not (only)...
 
but
The
negator not /n't
or the combination
not /n't only
may be correlative with a following
but:
 38.
 
He didn't come to help, but to hinder us. ['but rather']39.
 
They not only broke into his office and stole his books, but (they) (also) tore up his manuscripts.40.
 
He came not to help, but to hinder us.41.
 
 Not only did they break into his office and steal his books, but they also tore up his manuscripts.42.
 
 Not Henry, but his wife is the owner.43.
 
G . Simple Coordination
Simple coordination – is what we have when a single clause or clause constituent is linked to others thatare parallel in meaning, in function, and (generally) in form.This can be seen as an elliptical version of clause coordination, or as a single clause containing a predicatewhich in turn contains two or more predicates.44.
 
Sam has trimmed the hedge and mowed the lawn. (Simple coordination)45.
 
Sam has trimmed the hedge and (Sam has)mowed the lawn – Ellipsis46.
 
Sam has [(trimmed the hedge) and (mowed the lawn)] – single clause with predication containingtwo predicates.
H. Coordination of CLAUSES:
H(i) a. Complete independent clauses may be coordinated:47.
 
The winter had come at last, and snow lay thick on the ground.H(i) b. Subordinate finite clauses may be coordinated, so long as they belong to the same function class:48.
 
If you pass the examination and (if) no one else applies, you are bound to get the job.[coordinated adverbial clauses]49.
 
The Minister believes that the economy is improving and (that unemployment will soon decrease.[coordinated nominal th/it-clauses]50.
 
I didn't know who she was or what she wanted. [coordinated nominal wh-clauses]51.
 
Someone who knows the area, but whose home is outside it, is more likely to be a successfulrepresentative. [coordinated relative clauses]H(i) c. Nonfinite clauses of the same type and also verbless clauses may coordinated:52.
 
I've asked him to come this evening or (to) phone us tomorrow. [coordinated to-infinitive clauses]

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