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case study on AGE

case study on AGE

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Published by: zyxert on Sep 03, 2009
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08/05/2013

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CAGAYAN COLLEGES TUGUEGARAOCOLLEGE OF HEALTH
A CASE STUDYON
ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS(AGE)
Submitted by: Dennis Gallardo
 
INTRODUCTION
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is an acute infectious process affectinggastrointestinal tract caused by virus, bacteria and parasites. The disease is transmitted byingestion of contaminated food, water, or by contaminated hands, linens, equipments, andsupplies. Most serious complication is dehydration and electrolyte losses which may leadto metabolic acidosis and death. The primary manifestation of gastroenteritis is diarrhea, but it may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The vomitingusually settles in a day or so. The diarrhea may last for up to 10 days, but usually lastsonly to 2 or 3 days. If there is fever, or blood and mucus in the stools it is more likely to be contagious. Gastroenteritis is contagious as the organism lives in the gastrointestinaltract, so it is important to wash hands thoroughly after going to the toilet and before preparing food.Acute gastroenteritis is associated with significant morbidity in developedcountries and each year is the cause of death of several million children in developingcountries. Estimates of the overall incidence of acute gastroenteritis range from 1.3 to 2.3episodes of diarrhea per year in children under five years of age. Each year, more than300 U.S. children die from this illness. In the United States alone, gastroenteritis accountsfor more than 220,000 hospital admissions per year in children less than five years of age,or approximately 10 percent of hospitalizations in this age group.Acute gastroenteritis is a common and costly clinical problem in children. It is alargely self-limited disease with many etiologies. The evaluation of the child with acutegastroenteritis requires a careful history and a complete physical examination to uncover other illness with similar presentations. Minimal laboratory testing is generally required.Treatment is primary supportive and is directed at preventing or treating dehydration.When positive, an age-supportive diet and fluids should be continued. Oral rehydrationtherapy using a commercial pediatric oral rehydration solution is preferred approach tomild or moderate dehydration. The traditional approach using “clear liquidsisinadequate. Severe dehydration requires the prompt restoration of intravascular volumethrough the intravenous administration of fluids followed by oral rehydration therapy.When rehydration is achieved, an aged-appropriate diet should be promptly resumed.Anti-emetic and anti-diarrheal medications are generally not indicated and maycontribute to complications.On its mortality and morbidity, AGE is a leading cause of infant mortalitythroughout the world. By age 3 years, virtually all children become infected with themost common agents. Severe cases are seen in the elderly, infant and immunosuppressed population including transplant patients.Last July 05, 2007, we encountered a patient with such kind of infection. This patient has caught our attention and has given the opportunity to study his case. Theobjective of this study is to help us understand the disease process of gastroenteritis andto orient ourselves for appropriate nursing interventions that we could offer to the patient.
 
This approach enables us to exercise our duties as student nurses which is to render care.I was given the chance to improve the quality of care I can offer and to pursue our chosen profession as future nurses. 
PATIENT’S PROFILE
Patient’s Name:
Budong
Age:
4 years & 7 months
Gender:
Male
Address:
Carig Sur, Tuguegarao City
Date of Birth:
December 3, 2002
Civil Status:
Single
Religion:
Roman Catholic
Nationality:
Filipino
Dialect:
Ilocano

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