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HVAC and Building Enclosure

HVAC and Building Enclosure

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Published by Gerald

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Published by: Gerald on Sep 03, 2009
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02/28/2012

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OverviewMisc. CHPS CriteriaThermal Loads in SchoolsGood Envelope DesignVentilation: Natural & MechanicalHVACSystem Selection&DesignDisplacement Ventilation
HVAC andBuilding Enclosure
2
Training Objectives
Design priorities
 –Building enclosure design priorities (for efficiency and comfort) –Ventilation (mechanical vs. natural) –HVAC system selection –Displacement ventilation design
Based on understanding of:
 –Thermal comfort (covered previously) –Indoor air quality (covered previously) –Thermal loads
And at the same time…
 –Introduction to relevant CHPS criteria and BPM guideline contents
Overview
Misc. CHPSCriteria
HVAC andBuilding Envelope
4
CHPS Criteria
2.1. Reduce the use of municipally provided potable water for building sewage conveyance by a minimum of 50% through theutilization of water-efficient fixtures and/or using municipallysupplied reclaimed water systems.
1 point 
2.2. Employ strategies that, in aggregate, reduce potable water use by 20% beyond the baseline calculated for the building (notincluding irrigation) after meeting the Energy Policy Act of 1992’sfixture performance requirements.OR2.3. Exceed the potable water use reduction by 30% beyond thebaseline.
1 point 2 points
Water Credit 2:Water Use Reduction
(1 to 3 points)
5
Energy Efficiency
Energy Prerequisite 1: Minimum Energy Performance.
Energy Credit 1: Superior Energy Performance (prescriptive option).
Energy Credit 2: Natural Ventilation.
 –HVAC interconnect with windows and doors. –90% of classrooms without AC.
Energy Credit 3: Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation.
Energy Prerequisite 2: Fundamental Building Systems Testing andTraining.
Energy Credit 4: Commissioning.
Energy Credit 5: Energy Management Systems.
CHPS Criteria
6
Prescriptive Approach for Energy Efficiency
Energy Prerequisite 1 (10% Savings)
 –Lighting power no greater than 0.95 W/ft
2
(motion sensor credit allowed) –Economizer 
Energy Credit 1 (20%, 4 points)
 –Daylighting and dimming controls on at least 40% of lighting –Radiant barrier in attic.
CHPS Criteria
October 2003
 
7
Commissioning
Typical commissioning process.
 –Commissioning plan development. –Documentation of design intent. –Design review. –Submittals review. –Inspections and system functional testing. –Enhanced operating and maintenance documentation. –Post-occupancy testing.
Energy Prerequisite 2: Testing and Training.
Energy Credit 4: Commissioning.
CHPS Criteria
ThermalLoads inSchools
HVAC andBuilding Envelope
9
Why Talk About Thermal Loads?
An understanding of loads helps when setting envelope designpriorities
Minimizing loads can have many benefits
 –Better comfort –Smaller HVAC equipment –Lower operating cost –CHPS energy efficiency points!
Thermal Loads in School
10
What’s a BTU?
Btu = British Thermal Unit
The heat generated by theburning of one match(approximately).
1 Btu = Energy required to raisethe temperature of 1 pound of water (about 1 pint) by 1 degreeFahrenheit.
Thermal Loads in School
11
Heat Gains (independent of outside temperature)
12,800 Btu/hTotalup to 3,000 Btu/hFairly small with correct orientationand shadingSolar 1,500 Btu/hThree computers(About 150 watts each)Plugs3,300 Btu/h1 watt per square foot(1 watt = 3.413 Btu/hr)Lights5,000 Btu/h24-30 kids(@ 200 Btu/hr)People
Thermal Loads in School
12
Heat Losses/Gains
(dependent on outside air temperature)
Window conduction
Walls, roofs and floors
Infiltration
Outside air ventilation (a “system” load rather than a “space” load)
Thermal Loads in School
 
13
Balance Point Temperature
-25,000-20,000-15,000-10,000-5,00005,00010,00015,00020,00025,0000102030405060708090100110120
Outdoor Air Temperature
   C   l  a  s  s  r  o  o  m    L  o  a   d  s   (   B   t  u   /   h  o  u  r   )
Cooling RequiredHeating Required
Wall & Roof 
Thermal Loads in School
14
Balance Point Temperature
(cont’d)
-25,000-20,000-15,000-10,000-5,00005,00010,00015,00020,00025,0000102030405060708090100110120
Outdoor Air Temperature
   C   l  a  s  s  r  o  o  m    L  o  a   d  s   (   B   t  u   /   h  o  u  r   )
Cooling RequiredHeating Required
+ Window
Thermal Loads in School
15
Balance Point Temperature
(cont’d)
-25,000-20,000-15,000-10,000-5,00005,00010,00015,00020,00025,0000102030405060708090100110120
Outdoor Air Temperature
   C   l  a  s  s  r  o  o  m    L  o  a   d  s   (   B   t  u   /   h  o  u  r   )
Cooling RequiredHeating Required
+ Occupants
Thermal Loads in School
16
Balance Point Temperature
(cont’d)
-25,000-20,000-15,000-10,000-5,00005,00010,00015,00020,00025,0000102030405060708090100110120
Outdoor Air Temperature
   C   l  a  s  s  r  o  o  m    L  o  a   d  s   (   B   t  u   /   h  o  u  r   )
Cooling RequiredHeating Required
+ Lights
Thermal Loads in School
17
Balance Point Temperature
(cont’d)
-25,000-20,000-15,000-10,000-5,00005,00010,00015,00020,00025,0000102030405060708090100110120
Outdoor Air Temperature
   C   l  a  s  s  r  o  o  m    L  o  a   d  s   (   B   t  u   /   h  o  u  r   )
Cooling RequiredHeating Required
+ Plugs
Balance PointTemperature
Thermal Loads in School
GoodEnvelopeDesign
HVAC andBuilding Envelope

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