Consider two real-valued random variables (RV)X andY with the individual probabil- ity distributionspX(x) andpY (y), and the joint distributionpX,Y (x, y). The probability distributions are probability mass functions (pmf) if the random variables take discrete values, and they are probability density functions (ptf) if the random variables are con- tinuous. Some authors usef () instead ofp(), especially for continuous RVs.
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