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playing no.sRatings: (0)|Views: 90|Likes: 7

Published by krish63

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/19432737/playing-no-s

05/11/2014

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GENERAL EQUATION OF N

th

DEGREE

Let polynomial f(x) = a

0

x

n

+ a

1

x

n â€“ 1

+ a

2

x

n â€“ 2

+ â€¦ + a

n

. where a

0

, a

1

, a

2

, ..a

n

are rational numbersand n Â³ 0. Then the values of x for which f(x) reduces to zero are called root of the equation f(x) = 0.The highest whole number power of x is called the degree of the equation.For examplex

4

â€“ 3x

3

+ 4x

2

+ x + 1 = 0 is an equation with degree four.x

5

â€“ 6x

4

+ 3x

2

+ 1 = 0 is an equation with degree five.ax + b = 0 is called the linear equation.ax

2

+ bx + c = 0 is called the quadratic equation.ax

3

+ bx

2

+ cx + d = 0 is called the cubic equation.

Properties of equations and their roots

Every equation of the n

th

degree has exactly n roots.For example, the equation x

3

+ 4x

2

+ 1 = 0 has 3 roots,The equation x

5

â€“ x + 2 = 0 has 5 roots, and so onâ€¦In an equation with real coefficients imaginary roots occur in pairs i.e. if a + ib is a root of theequation f(x) = 0, then a â€“ ib will also be a root of the same equation. For example, if 2 +3i is a root of equation f(x) = 0, 2 â€“ 3i is also a root.

1.

If the coefficients of an equation are all positive then the equation has no positive root.Hence, the equation 2x

4

+ 3x

2

+ 5x + 1 = 0 has no positive root.

2.

If the coefficients of even powers of x are all of one sign, and the coefficients of the oddpowers are all of opposite sign, then the equation has no negative root. Hence, the equation6x

4

â€“ 11x

3

+ 5x

2

â€“ 2x + 1 = 0 has no negative root

3.

If the equation contains

only even

powers of x and the coefficients are all of the same sign,the equation has no real root. Hence, the equation 4x

4

+ 5x

2

+ 2 = 0 has no real root.

4.

If the equation contains

only odd

powers of x, and the coefficients are all of the same sign,the equation has no real root except x = 0. Hence, the equation 5x

5

+ 4x

3

+ x = 0 has onlyone real root at x = 0.

5.

Descartesâ€™ Rule of Signs

: An equation f(x) = 0 cannot have more positive roots thanthere are changes of sign in f(x), and cannot have more negative roots than there changes of sign in f( - x). Thus the equation x

4

+ 7x

3

âˆ’ 4x

2

âˆ’ x â€“ 7 = 0 has one positive rootbecause there is only change in sign. f( - x) = x

4

âˆ’ 7x

3

âˆ’ 4x

2

+ x â€“ 7 = 0 hence thenumber of negative real roots will be either 1 or 3.

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