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05/11/2014

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Theory of Equations..by TotalGadha-Saturday,3 March2007,03:06 PM
GENERAL EQUATION OF N
th
DEGREE
Let polynomial f(x) = a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n â€“ 1
+ a
2
x
n â€“ 2
+ â€¦ + a
n
. where a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, ..a
n
are rational numbersand n Â³ 0. Then the values of x for which f(x) reduces to zero are called root of the equation f(x) = 0.The highest whole number power of x is called the degree of the equation.For examplex
4
â€“ 3x
3
+ 4x
2
+ x + 1 = 0 is an equation with degree four.x
5
â€“ 6x
4
+ 3x
2
+ 1 = 0 is an equation with degree five.ax + b = 0 is called the linear equation.ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 is called the quadratic equation.ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = 0 is called the cubic equation.
Properties of equations and their roots
Every equation of the n
th
degree has exactly n roots.For example, the equation x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 1 = 0 has 3 roots,The equation x
5
â€“ x + 2 = 0 has 5 roots, and so onâ€¦In an equation with real coefficients imaginary roots occur in pairs i.e. if a + ib is a root of theequation f(x) = 0, then a â€“ ib will also be a root of the same equation. For example, if 2 +3i is a root of equation f(x) = 0, 2 â€“ 3i is also a root.
1.
If the coefficients of an equation are all positive then the equation has no positive root.Hence, the equation 2x
4
+ 3x
2
+ 5x + 1 = 0 has no positive root.

2.
If the coefficients of even powers of x are all of one sign, and the coefficients of the oddpowers are all of opposite sign, then the equation has no negative root. Hence, the equation6x
4
â€“ 11x
3
+ 5x
2
â€“ 2x + 1 = 0 has no negative root
3.
If the equation contains
only even
powers of x and the coefficients are all of the same sign,the equation has no real root. Hence, the equation 4x
4
+ 5x
2
+ 2 = 0 has no real root.
4.
If the equation contains
only odd
powers of x, and the coefficients are all of the same sign,the equation has no real root except x = 0. Hence, the equation 5x
5
+ 4x
3
+ x = 0 has onlyone real root at x = 0.
5.
Descartesâ€™ Rule of Signs
: An equation f(x) = 0 cannot have more positive roots thanthere are changes of sign in f(x), and cannot have more negative roots than there changes of sign in f( - x). Thus the equation x
4
+ 7x
3
âˆ’ 4x
2
âˆ’ x â€“ 7 = 0 has one positive rootbecause there is only change in sign. f( - x) = x
4
âˆ’ 7x
3
âˆ’ 4x
2
+ x â€“ 7 = 0 hence thenumber of negative real roots will be either 1 or 3.
EXAMPLES: