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Transition Elements IPE

Transition Elements IPE

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Published by AdiChemAdi
Easy study material for 10+2 AP chemistry students. Specially prepared for Intermediate Public Examination, Andhra Pradesh.
Easy study material for 10+2 AP chemistry students. Specially prepared for Intermediate Public Examination, Andhra Pradesh.

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Published by: AdiChemAdi on Sep 05, 2009
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08/16/2013

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1Transition elements
   P   r  e   p  a   r  e  d    b   y
   V .    A   D   I    T   Y   A    V   A   R   D   H   A   N
   H    T    T   P  :   /   /    W    W    W .   A   D   I   C   H   E   M   A   D   I .   C   O   M
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
    h   t   t  p  :   /   /  w  w  w .  a   d   i  c   h  e  m  a   d   i .  c  o  m
VISIT THE FOLLOWING SITE FOR OTHER FILES AND UPDATES IF ANYhttp://www.adichemadi.comTRANSITION ELEMENTSd-block elements:
The elements in which the differentiating electrons enter into d-orbitals of penultimateshell are known as d-block elements.These are present in the middle of the periodic table between s and p blocks.The general electronic configuration of these elements is (n-1)d
1-10
ns
0 or 1 or 2
.
11821314151617
3IIIB4IVB5VB6VIB7VIIB89VIII1011IB12IIBSc21Ti22V23Cr24Mn25Fe26Co27Ni28Cu29Zn30Y39Zr40Nb41Mo42Tc43Ru44Rh45Pd46Ag47Cd48La57Hf72Ta73W74Re75Os76Ir77Pt78Au79Hg80Ac89Rf104Ha105Dh106Bh107Hs108Mt109Uun110Uuu111Uub112
S-BLOCKP-BLOCKD-BLOCK
Transition elements:
The elements in which the d-orbitals are partially filled in either native state or intheir stable oxidation state are known as transition elements.The general electronic configuration of these elements is (n-1)d
1-10
ns
1-2
.Except group 12 (IIB) elements (Zn,Cd & Hg), all the d-block elements are the transition elements.In case of Zn, Cd & Hg the d-orbitals are completely filled both in native state as well as in their oxidationstates.
Classification of d-block elements:
Based on the principal quantum number of d-orbital being filledwith the differentiating electron, d-block elements are classified into four series viz., 3d,4d,5d and 6dseries.i) 3d seriesSc(Z=21) to Zn(Z=30)ii) 4d seriesY(Z=39) to Cd(Z=48)iii) 5d seriesLa(Z=57) to Hg(Z=80) excluding Ce(Z=58) to Lu(Z=71)iv) 6d seriesstarts with Ac(Z=89) and is still incomplete.
 
2Transition elements
   P   r  e   p  a   r  e  d    b   y
   V .    A   D   I    T   Y   A    V   A   R   D   H   A   N
   H    T    T   P  :   /   /    W    W    W .   A   D   I   C   H   E   M   A   D   I .   C   O   M
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
    h   t   t  p  :   /   /  w  w  w .  a   d   i  c   h  e  m  a   d   i .  c  o  m
3d series
3IIIB4IVB5VB6VIB7VIIB8 9VIII10 11IB12IIBElementAtomic numberSc21Ti22V23Cr24Mn25Fe26Co27Ni28Cu29Zn30ElectronicConfiguration3d
1
4s
2
3d
2
4s
2
3d
3
4s
2
3d
5
4s
1
3d
5
4s
2
3d
6
4s
2
3d
7
4s
2
3d
8
4s
2
3d
10
4s
1
3d
10
4s
2
 
4d Series
 3IIIB4IVB5VB6VIB7VIIB8 9VIII10 11IB12IIBElementAtomic NumberY39Zr40Nb41Mo42T c43Ru44Rh45Pd46Ag47Cd48ElectronicConfiguration4d
1
5s
2
4d
2
5s
2
4d
3
5s2 4d
5
5s1 4d
5
4s2 4d
6
5s
2
4d
7
5s
2
4d
10
s
10
4d
10
5s
1
4d
10
5s
2
 
5d series
3IIIB4IVB5VB6VIB7VIIB8 9VIII10 11IB12IIBElementAtomic Number:La57Hf72Ta73W74Re75Os76Ir77Pt78Au79Hg80ElectronicConfiguration4f
0
5d
1
6s
2
 4f
14
5d
2
6s
2
 4f
14
5d
3
6s
2
 4f
14
5d
5
6s
1
 4f
14
4d
5
6s
2
 4f
14
5d
6
6s
2
 4f
14
5d
7
6s
2
 4f
14
5d
8
6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6s
1
 4f
14
5d
10
6s
1
 
6d series
3IIIB4IVB5VB6VIB7VIIB8 9VIII10 11IB12IIBElementAtomic NumberAc89Ku104Ha(Unp)105(Unh)106(Uns)107(Uno)108(Une)109ElectronicConfiguration5f
0
 6d
1
7s
2
 5f
14
 6d
2
7s
2
 5f
14
 6d
3
7s
2
 
General characteristics
Transition elements exhibit following typical characteristic properties due to presence of partially filledd-orbitals.1) All the d-block elements are hard metals.2) Their melting and boiling points are very high.3) These are good conductors of heat and electricity.4) These metals are malleable, ductile.
 
3Transition elements
   P   r  e   p  a   r  e  d    b   y
   V .    A   D   I    T   Y   A    V   A   R   D   H   A   N
   H    T    T   P  :   /   /    W    W    W .   A   D   I   C   H   E   M   A   D   I .   C   O   M
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
    h   t   t  p  :   /   /  w  w  w .  a   d   i  c   h  e  m  a   d   i .  c  o  m
5) They have alloy forming tendency.6) They exhibit variable oxidation states.7) Most of them form colored atleast in one oxidation state.8) These metals are paramagnetic due to presence of unpaired electrons.9) They form coordination compounds.10) They can form interstitial compounds.11) These metals and their compounds have catalytic properties.
Electronic configuration
The general electronic configuration of these elements is (n-1)d
1-10
ns
1-2
. But some of the elementsshow anomolous electronic configurations due to very small energy difference between (n-1)d and nsorbitals.To get extra stability, electrons are exchanged between these orbitals and give rise to anomalousconfigurations.Eg., Following elements show anomalous electronic configurations as the atoms with half filled or full filledd-orbitals are more stable due to greater exchange energy.1) Cr3d
5
4s
1
2) Mo4d
5
5s
1
3) W5d
5
6s
1
4) Cu3d
10
4s
1
5) Ag4d
10
5s
1
6) Au5d
10
6s
1
7) Pd4d
10
5s
0
8) Pt5d
10
6s
0
or 5d
9
6s
1
or 5d
8
6s
2
Atomic and ionic radii
The atomic sizes of d-block elements are in between those of s and p-block elements.In the periodic table, atomic and ionic radii decrease from left to right across a period with increasein atomic number. But in d-block elements, this decrement is very small due to shielding effect of electronsin inner d-orbitals.For example, in 3d series, the atomic radii decreases from Sc to Cr but then remains almost constantup to Cu and then increased to Zn.
3d series
3IIIB4IVB5VB6VIB7VIIB89VIII1011IB12IIB
ElementAtomic radius (pm)
Sc164Ti147V135Cr129Mn137Fe126Co125Ni125Cu128Zn137
In IIIB group (Sc --> Y --> La), atomic size increase regularly from top to bottom.But in case of other d-block elements, the atomic radius increases from 3d series to 4d series andremains almost same for 4d and 5d series due to lanthanoid contraction.Eg., Hf (4d series) and Zr(5d series) almost equal atomic size.
 IIIBAtomic radius(A
o
) IVBAtomic radius(A
o
)Sc 1.62 Ti 1.47Y 1.80 Zr 1.60La 1.87 Hf 1.58

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