8Principles of Management andOrganisational Behaviour
(i)explain the meaning and characteristics of management.(ii)describe scope of management.(iii)know the nature of management, i.e., is it a science or an art.(iv)describe management as a profession.(v)understand evolution of management thought.
Management is a vital aspect of the economic life of man, which is an organised groupactivity. A central directing and controlling agency is indispensable for a business concern.The productive resources – material, labour, capital etc. are entrusted to the organisingskill, administrative ability and enterprising initiative of the management. Thus, managementprovides leadership to a business enterprise. Without able managers and effectivemanagerial leadership the resources of production remain merely resources and neverbecome production. Under competitive economy and ever-changing environment thequality and performance of managers determine both the survival as well as success of any business enterprise. Management occupies such an important place in the modernworld that the welfare of the people and the destiny of the country are very muchinfluenced by it.
1.2DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT
Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subjecthave defined the term "management", some of these definitions are reproduced below:According to Lawrence A Appley - "Management is the development of people and notthe direction of things".According to Joseph Massie - "Management is defined as the process by which a co-operative group directs action towards common goals".In the words of George R Terry - "Management is a distinct process consisting of planning,organising, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectivesby the use of people and resources".According to James L Lundy - "Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective".In the words of Henry Fayol - "To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, tocommand, to co-ordinate and to control".According to Peter F Drucker - "Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages abusiness and manages managers and manages worker and work".In the words of J.N. Schulze - "Management is the force which leads, guides and directsan organisation in the accomplishment of a pre-determined object".In the words of Koontz and O'Donnel - "Management is defined as the creation andmaintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working togetherin groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals".According to Ordway Tead - "Management is the process and agency which directs andguides the operations of an organisation in realising of established aims".According to Stanley Vance - "Management is simply the process of decision-makingand control over the actions of human beings for the express purpose of attaining pre-determined goals".