Prepared By : Hassan Nasrullah, Mubeeb Academy Karachi, Contact: 0322-2440684, E-mail: email@example.com
the physical components and other attached input and output devices of computers are called Hardware. All Hardware componentsmay be connected mechanically, electrically or electronically with each other. Hardware includes input/output devices, CPU, backingstorage devices and electronic circuit.
Computer required a number of instructions to do any job. The set of these instructions forms programs. Numbers of programs arecombined for some purposes are called software.They are designed by manufactures and programmers.
Types of Software
1. System Software2. Application Software
Ages of Computer
At the early age people used pebbles, stones, sticks, scratches, symbols and finger tips to count, which were later replaced by numbers.The history of computing is divided into three ages during which man invented and improved different types of calculating machines.These ages are,
Dark age - 300 BC to 1890
Middle age - 1890 AD to 1944
Modern age - since 1944 AD
Dark Age (3000 BC to 1890 AD
About 3000 years BC, Chinese developed the first calculating machine named Abacus or Soroban.Abacus consists of a rectangular wooden frame having rods which carry round beads. Counting is done by shifting the beads from oneside to another.
OUGHTRED’S SLIDE RULES
In 1632 AD William Oughtred, an English mathematician developed a slide rule. This device consists of two movable rules placedside by side on which number were marked.