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Apple Inc

Apple Inc

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Published by maryjanefairy

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Published by: maryjanefairy on Sep 05, 2009
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1976–1980: The early years
1986–1993: Rise and fall
1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention
1998–2005: New beginnings
2005–present: The Intel partnership
3)Business4)Corporate affairs5)Advertising6) Environmental record7) Criticism
IntroductionApple Inc
is an American multinational corporation with a focus on designing andmanufacturing consumer electronics and software products. The company's best-knownhardware products include the Macintosh line of personal computers, the iPod line of  portable media players, and the iPhone. Apple's software products include the Mac OS Xoperating system, iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativitysoftware, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio- and film-industry software products. The company operates more than 200 retail stores in eight countries and an onlinestore where hardware and software products are sold.Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 and incorporated January 3, 1977, thecompany was called "Apple Computer, Inc." for its first 30 years, but dropped the word"Computer" on January 9, 2007 to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into theconsumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. Applehas about 28,000 employees worldwide and has worldwide annuak sales of US$24 billion inits fiscal year ending September 29, 2007.
1976–1980: The early yearsApple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne,tosell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak and first shown tothe public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (withCPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced atUS$666.66.Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977 without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800.The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. Itdiffered from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with color graphics and an open architecture.By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. TheApple II was succeeded by the Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBMand Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh. The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-upsales were not strong. The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction of theLaserWriter, the first laser printer to be offered at a reasonable price point, and PageMaker,an early desktop publishing package. The Mac was particularly powerful in this market dueto its advanced graphics capabilities, which were already necessarily built-in to create theintuitive Macintosh GUI. It has been suggested that the combination of these three productswas responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market. As desktop publishing became widespread, Apple's sales reached new highs and the company had its initial publicoffering on September 7, 1984.Apple's sustained growth during the early 1980s was partly due to its leadership in theeducation sector, attributed to their adaptation of the programming language LOGO, used inmany schools with the Apple II. The drive into education was accentuated in California withthe donation of one Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school inthe state.1986–1993: Rise and fallHaving learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in1989, Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991, which established the modern form andergonomic layout of the laptop computer. The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a
major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced newnetworking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001.The success of the PowerBook and other products led to increasing revenue. For some time,it appeared that Apple could do no wrong, introducing fresh new products and generatingincreasing profits in the process. The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989and 1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh.During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles andTV appliances.Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows, focusing on delivering softwarewith cheap commodity PCs while Apple was delivering a richly engineered, but expensive,experience.1994–1997: Attempts at reinventionThe Apple Newton was Apple's first foray into the PDA markets, as well as one of the first inthe industry.By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as theA/UX. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform, or reworked to run onmore powerful hardware.In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance. The goal was to create anew computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM andMotorola hardware coupled with Apple's software. The AIM alliance hoped that PReP's performance and Apple's software would leave the PC far behind, thus countering Microsoft.The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers touse IBM's PowerPC processor.On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store, tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy.1998–2005: New beginningsOn August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of theMacintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. The iMac featured current technology and a groundbreakingdesign. It sold close to 800,000 units in its first five months and returned Apple to profitability for the first time since 1993.Through this period, Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professionaland consumer-oriented digital production software. In 1998, Apple announced the purchaseof Macromedia's Final Cut software, signaling its expansion into the digital video editingmarket. The following year, Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers, and Final Cut Pro for professionals, the latter of which has gone on to be asignificant video-editing program, with 800,000 registered users in early 2007. In 2002 Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake,as well asEmagic for their music productivity application Logic, which led to the development of their consumer-level GarageBand application. iPhoto's release the same year completed the iLifesuite.On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia andCalifornia. The same year, Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. The product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years.In 2003, Apple's iTunes Store was introduced, offering online music downloads for US$0.99a song and integration with the iPod. The service quickly became the market leader in onlinemusic services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19th 2008.

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