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Notes on ERD Design1

# Notes on ERD Design1

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its a it project.chapter name is database.its releted to erd-entity relationship diagram.its also helpful in making relationship,in ms access,in oracle,in sql...and many more...
its a it project.chapter name is database.its releted to erd-entity relationship diagram.its also helpful in making relationship,in ms access,in oracle,in sql...and many more...

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12/07/2012

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Entity Relationship Diagrams
An entity-relationship diagram is a graphical depiction of organizational system elementsand the association among the elements. E-R diagrams can help define system boundaries. The elements that make up a system are referred to as
entities.
A
relationship
is the association that describes the interaction between entities.An E-R diagram may also indicate the
cardinality
of a relationship. Cardinality is thenumber of instances of one entity that can, or must, be associated with each instance of another entity. In general we may speak of one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-manyrelationships.There are several different styles used to draw Entity-Relationship diagrams. The Kendalland Kendall text uses the Crow's Foot notation. Using this notation entities arerepresented by rectangles and relationships are indicated by lines connecting therectangles. Cardinality is shown by a series of "tick marks" and "crows feet"superimposed on the relationship lines.In the following example each student fills one seat in a class. Each seat is filled by onestudent. (In this usage a "seat" implies not only a physical place to sit but also a specificday and time.) This is a one-to-one relationship.In the next example a single instructor may teach several courses. Each course has onlyone instructor. This is a one-to-many relationship.As shown below, a single student may register for several courses. A single course canhave many students enrolled in it. This is the many-to-many relationship.The next example shows a relationship in which it is possible that no instances exist.Each professor may teach several course sections but may not teach at all if on sabbatical.Assume there is no team teaching, therefore each section must have a single professor.

Finally, a more complex example which shows more than one relationship. All of theexamples above depict single relationships. An actual E-R diagram would show the manyentities and relationships that exist within a system. Here each department offers at leastone course; there is no cross-listing of courses with other departments. Each course musthave at least one section but often has several sections.
What are ERDs?
Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERDs) illustrate the logical structure of databases.

An ER Diagram

Entity Relationship Diagram Notations
Peter Chendeveloped ERDs in 1976. Since then Charles Bachman and James Martinhave added some sligh refinements to the basic ERD principles.
Entity
An entity is an object or concept about which you want to store information.Learn how to edit text on an entity.
Weak Entity
: Occasionally, entities of an entity set need “helpto identify themuniquely.Entity set
E
is said to be
weak
if in order to identify entities of
E
uniquely, we need tofollow one or more many-one relationships from
E
and include the key of the relatedentities from the connected entity sets.Example : Nname is almost a key for football players, but there might be two with thesame name. Number is certainly not a key, since players on two teams could have thesame number. But number, together with the team name related to the player by Plays-onshould be unique.Attributes are the properties or characteristics of an entity.Learn how to edit text on this object.