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Pengukuran graviti

Pengukuran graviti

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Published by azmir

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Published by: azmir on Sep 06, 2009
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03/05/2013

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Pengenalan Kepada Graviti
Graviti yang dimaksudkan dalam konteks geodesi fizikal ialah kuasa hasil daripadagabungan daya tarikan Bumi ( graviti jisim Bumi ) dan kuasa mengempar ( halajumemusat ) disebabkan oleh putaran Bumi yang bertindak ke atas sesuatu jisim yangterletak di permukaan Bumi. Nilai graviti dipengaruhi oleh susunan dan taburan jisimdam putaran Bumi yang sentiasa berubah-ubah mengikut masa. Nilai purata graviti Bumi( g ) ialah 980 unit gal di mana 1 gal bersamaan 1cm . Oleh kerana graviti merupakansatu pecutan maka pengukurannya mestilah melibatkan penentuan panjang dan masa.Walaubagaimanapun pengukuran semudah ini tidak dapat dicapai pada ketepatan dankejituan yang dikehendaki dalam pengukuran graviti.
Pengukuran Graviti
Pengukuran graviti dapat dibahagikan kepada 2 jenis iaitu :-
a)Graviti Mutlak 
Melibatkan keseluruhan magnitud di sesuatu titik iaitu pengukurannilai kelajuan graviti pada satu titik secara langsung. Ianya dilakukantanpa membuat rujukan kepada mana-mana stesen yang lain.
Memerlukan peralatan yang canggih, kos yang mahal serta tempohcerapan yang lebih lama.
4 kaedah yang boleh digunakan iaitu kaedah jatuhan bebas, kaedahnaik turun, kaedah pendulum dan
 Sakuma.
FG-5
The FG5 has been designed in the early 90’s, as a follower of the JILAGs. It ismanufactured by Micro-g Solutions in Boulder, Colorado (U.S.A.) catapult is needed for the FG5 because the reflector is only
dropped and free-falling
.
 
GA-601
In the early 70’s
Prof. Sakuma
designed an AG, which was operated at Sèvres (close toParis, France), in the buildings of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures(B.I.P.M.). Later on he also designed a transportable version of this gravimeter, belongingto the B.I.P.M. and manufactured by the Jaeger Company, in Levallois-Perret (France)
 
 
Komponen FG5
 
GA-60 – Gravimeter Mutlak 
 
Absolute Gravimeters-
The GA-60 and FG5 instruments are both of the “new”generation of 
absolute gravimeters
(AG), using the principle of a
reflecting objectfalling in the vacuum
,
by opposition to the previous absolute gravimeters whichwere
 
pendulums
. This new concept has been made possible thanks to the progress of clocks and laser interferometry in order to measure time and distances with a great precision. The position of the reflecting object is indeed determined by counting theinterference fringes produced since one of the arms of the Michelson interferometer has achanging length. In both instruments, the
main parts
are:i)a vacuum cylinder in which a reflecting object is
launched and free falling(GA-60)
or 
simply dropped (FG5
),ii)a helium-neon laser stabilised on iodine,iii)an interferometer to which a seismometer is linked,iv) a highly stable rubidium clock andv)a computer which drives the operations, acquires the data and computes thevalue of gravity.
b)Graviti Relati
Untuk mengesan perubahan kekuatan medan graviti dari satu titik ketitik yang lain di atas permukaan fizikal Bumi. Ianya dilakukan denganmerujuk kepada satu titik yang dijadikan kawalan sebagai rujukanuntuk mendapatkan perbezaan gravitinya dengan titik yang lain.
Pengukuran nilai graviti relatif iaitu perbezaan graviti di antara stesenadalah lebih mudah dan menjadi kaedah piawai dalam pengukurangraviti. Nilai graviti mutlak pada stesen yang diukur boleh diperolehidengan merujuk kepada Jaringan Piawaian Graviti Antarabangsa(IGSN) 1971 (Morelli et. al. 1971). Jaringan ini merupakan stesen-stesen yang nilai graviti mutlaknya telah ditentukan dengan merujuk kepada tapak pengukuran graviti mutlak. Dengan menggunakan peralatan yang dapat memberi bacaan relatif bagi menentukan beza

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