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Ch-12 Fire Fighting

Ch-12 Fire Fighting

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Published by neeraj kumar singh

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Published by: neeraj kumar singh on Sep 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

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CHAPTER TWELVEFIRE FIGHTING
1.0Introduction
Telecom equipment is energized from supplies derived from public AC mainsor departmental engine alternator. Fire may be caused by use of higher ratingfuse for circuit currents of longer intensity than the rated capacity flowingthrough wires or appliances, sparking due to loose contacts at certain pointsin the electric circuits. It can also be caused due to over load when highcurrent cause over heating of conductors, wires coming into contact with oneanother and causing short circuit or wires getting earthed due to insulation of wires getting damaged. Smoking in office, equipment room, and power room.Cable chambers, battery room, throwing of burning cigarette bits, due tostorage of inflammable material without proper precautions may also causefire.
2.0Triangle of fire2.1
We shall at this stage have a look at the triangle of combustion. The threeessential factors for a fire are(i)The combustible material or fuel(ii)Oxygen or ai(iii)The ignition temperature or heat.OXYGEN OR AIR2.2.1If any of above factors is missing, there can be no fire. The methods of extinguishing fire, therefore is reduced to(i)Removal of the fuel or starvation(ii)Removal of the oxygen or smothering(iii)Bringing down the temperature or cooling.
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2.3Fire, like heat is spread by condition, convection and radiation. Conductionmeans transmission through solids, convection through fluids while radiationrequires no medium of transmission. All direct flames and flying sparks canalso be included under the terms radiation and these account for the majorityof equipment fires in the department. A careful watch is very essential toprevent such fires.2.4Throwing quantities of cold water effectively quenches majority of fires. Apump is a handy device and a party of three or four trained persons can withthis appliance, effectively put out even a major conflagration. Water can,however, not be used over oil fires and electrical fire fused in the case of oilfires, oil being lighter will be spread out and the water sinking to the bottomgets heated up flashes into steam and consequently expanding to about 1700times, foams over with violent eruption. In the case of electrical fires, use of water on live electrical equipment’s wiring involves personnel risk due toshocks. Also it causes permanent damage to use the electrical insulation. Insuch cases sand is the most commonly used fire fighting material. The sandcuts the supply of oxygen to the fire.2.5In most cases of fire, however, the point of conflagration is not easilyaccessible. The fire fighting operations will have to be done from distanceonly. Handy chemical fire extinguishers are, therefore, stored at convenientplaces and this case readily be used for directing the jet of the extinguishingfluid against the fire. In chemical fire extinguishers, no fire extinguishingchemicals are discharged but the gas generated by the chemical action isused as a propelling agent.
3.0Precautions against fire in Telecom Building.
3.1Preventive Measures(i)Fuses of correct type and size must only be used for replacement.(ii)Bare fuse wires of strands of copper wire should not be used to replaceblown fuses.(iii)All mains supply fuses should be inside their covers or cartridges andshould not be exposed.(iv)It is necessary that all alarms type fuses should have the correct color beads fitted on them. Only fuse wire of correct rating should be usedfor their repairs.(v)Resistance spools should not be used indiscriminately, without anyregard to their capacity for heat dissipation. The heat dissipated mustnot raise the temperature of the resistance spool to such a degree asto cause fire.(vi)While considering the wattage of the resistance to be used, maximumcurrent that may flow through it under fault condition should be taken
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into account and not merely the current under normal conditions of operation(vii)For all resistances above 2 watts dissipation ceramic Bobbin typeresistance coils should be used.(viii)All connections should be firmly fixed and soldered wherever necessary.(ix)All jack strips should be properly fitted and strip fastener screwsproperly tightened.(x)All power leads, especially those carrying heavy current must haveconductors of gauge, sufficient to carry safely the maximum amount of current that is likely to pass through time.(xi)The leads should be of the proper lengths with just a little length sparefor repairs etc.(xii)Even for temporary repairs, unnecessarily long lengths of wire or thewire of gauge smaller than what is needed should not be used.(xiii)In manual exchange and auto switch room the passages round theswitch boards or equipment tacks should be kept clear of combustiblematerial like books, directories, files, bottles of oil mythelated anddenatured sprit, oil, pieces of cable etc. as they are likely to assist inspreading of fire.(xiv)Smoking in switch room, power room, equipment room cable chamber,battery room, and MDF room should be strictly prohibited.(xv)Where it is necessary to use blow lamps in apparatus room, ensurethat asbestos blanket 3’ X 3’ and a bucket of sand is ready. The lightingof blowlamp should be carried out away from the apparatus rooms.(xvi)Naked lights should not be used and may not even be stored in rooms.(xvii)Avoid accumulation of dirty cotton waste and especially oily rags andwaste in the power room.(xviii)Whenever electric soldering iron is in use a red pilot lamp must be incircuit.
3.2Precautions to be taken against spread of fire in Telecom. Buildings
(i)Adequate arrangements for provision of fire fighting appliance shouldbe made.
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