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Amino Acid Metabolism

Amino Acid Metabolism

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Published by clesleon
AMINO ACID
METABOLISM.
Nonessential Amino Acid Synthesis
Essential Amino Acids
Amino Acid Degradation
Generalities of Amino Acid Catabolism
Products of Amino Acid Degradation
AMINO ACID
METABOLISM.
Nonessential Amino Acid Synthesis
Essential Amino Acids
Amino Acid Degradation
Generalities of Amino Acid Catabolism
Products of Amino Acid Degradation

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Published by: clesleon on Sep 07, 2009
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186
C H A P T E R
16
AMINO ACIDMETABOLISM
Nonessential Amino Acid SynthesisEssential Amino AcidsAmino Acid DegradationGeneralities of Amino Acid CatabolismProducts of Amino Acid Degradation
• • • • • • • • • • • •
AMINO ACIDSYNTHETIC ROUTE
AlaFrom Pyruvate by transaminationGluFrom
-Ketoglutarate by transaminationAspFrom Oxaloacetate by transaminationGlnGlu
NH
4
ATP
GlnAsnAsp
Gln
ATP
Asn
AMP
PP
i
GluSerGlucose
hydroxypyruvate
SerGlucose
phosphohydroxypyruvate
SerGlySer
THfolate
Gly
CH
2
-THfolateArgGlu
Glu-semialdehyde
ornithine
ArgProGlu
Glu-semialdehyde
ProTyrPhe
Tyr (phenylalanine hydroxylase, biopterin cofactor)CysMet
homoCys
Ser
cystathionine
Cys
NONESSENTIAL AMINO ACID SYNTHESIS
 
16Amino Acid Metabolism
187
The other
nine
amino acids are essential and must be taken from thediet. Notice that some of the amino acids require other amino acids fortheir synthesis. Exam questions usually center on whether or not anamino acid is essential and the metabolites that serve as precursors forspecific amino acids.The complete catabolic pathways of the individual amino acids area complex set of pathways that are probably not worth remembering indetail (this is obviously opinion). This doesn’t mean they’re not impor-tant. In fact, there are diseases that are caused by inherited defects inmost of the pathways. The preceding table is a general guide that showswhere the amino acids go and points out significant intermediates.
GENERALITIES OF AMINO ACID CATABOLISM
If a vitamin or cofactor is involved in amino acid metabolism, it’smost likely pyridoxal phosphate (B
6
), unless it involves serine,and then it’s B
6
and folic acid.Nitrogen is dumped into the urea cycle by transamination to makeAsp or Glu or by deamination to make ammonia.
AMINO ACID DEGRADATION
Ketogenic:Leu, LysDegraded to acetyl-CoA.Glucose cannot be made fromthese.Glucogenic and Ketogenic:Ile, Phe, Tyr, TrpGoes both ways.Glucogenic:
Everything else
Degraded to pyruvate or a memberof the TCA cycleGlucose can be made from these.
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Val
 
188
Basic Concepts in Biochemistry
The nitrogen contained in the amino acids is usually disposed of through the urea cycle. One of the early, if not the first, steps in aminoacid catabolism involves a transamination using oxaloacetate or
-ketoglutarate as the amino-group acceptor. This converts the amino acidinto a 2-keto acid, which can then be metabolized further.R—CH(NH
3
)CO
2
oxaloacetate
∆ 
R—(C
O)CO
2
AspThese enzymes invariably involve a cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate(vitamin B
6
). In addition, pyridoxal phosphate is also required for mostdecarboxylations, racemizations, or elimination reactions in which anamino acid is a substrate. Pyridoxal phosphate is not involved in decar-boxylations in which the substrate is not an amino acid. So if a question
PRODUCTS OF AMINO ACID DEGRADATION
Ala to
 pyruvate
by transaminationArg to urea and
glutamate
Asp to
oxaloacetate
by transamination or to fumarate via urea cycleAsn to AspCys carbon to
 pyruvate
, sulfur to
sulfate
Glu to
-
ketoglutarate
by transamination, then to glucoseGln to
glutamate
by hydrolysisGly to
glyoxylate
or
serine
His to
glutamate
and
one-carbon pool
Met to
 propionyl-CoA
via homocysteine
cystathionine
ketobutyratePro to
glutamate
Ser to
glycine
and
CH 
2
THfolate
Thr to
 propionyl-CoA
through ketobutyrateVal to
 propionyl-CoA
through transamination, decarboxylation, anda bunch of rearrangementsLeu to
acetoacetate
and
acetyl-CoA
through transamination, decar-boxylation, and a bunch of rearrangementsIle to
 propionyl-CoA
through transamination, decarboxylation, anda bunch of rearrangementsPhe to
Tyr 
, then to
acetoacetate
and
 fumarate
Tyr to
acetoacetate
and
 fumarate
Try to
acetyl-CoA
via ring oxidation and cleavage to ketoadipateLys to
acetyl-CoA
via transamination and deamination to ketoadi-pate

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