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Photography Dictionery - Complete Terminology

Photography Dictionery - Complete Terminology

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Published by nimish
A complete dictionery for Photography terminology for those who wants to understand even very minute aspects of photography. Hope every one would enjoy it.
A complete dictionery for Photography terminology for those who wants to understand even very minute aspects of photography. Hope every one would enjoy it.

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Published by: nimish on Sep 07, 2009
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04/14/2013

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NimNimNimNimish Jadawalaish Jadawalaish Jadawalaish Jadawala
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1. Photo Glossary - A
Abbe number
-
 
denotes the degree of refraction of light of different wavelengths todifferent extents, given by a transparent material, such as glass. The lower the Abbenumber, the greater the dispersion of colors.
Aberration
- the inability of a lens to produce a perfect, sharp image, especially towardsthe edge of the lens field. These faults can be reduced by compound lens constructions,and the use of small apertures.
•Abrasion marks
- marks on the emulsion surface of a film, caused by scratching. It canbe due to traces of dirt trapped between layers of film as it is wound on the spool, or to griton the pressure plate.
•Absolute released images
- any images for which signed model or property releasesare on file and immediately available.
•Absolute temperature
- the temperature at which most molecular movement ceases. Itis often referred to as absolute zero (-273°C).
•Absorption
- the process by which light falling on a surface is partially absorbed by thesurface.
•Abstract
- subjective, non-realistic image. An abstraction photograph generally containsa design of patterns or shapes where the identity of a subject is not evident.
•Accelerator
- chemical added to a developing solution to speed up the slow workingaction of the reducing agents in the solution.
•Acceptable Circle of Confusion
- the size of the largest circle which the eye cannotdistinguish from a dot. In 35mm format cameras, a 0.03mm diameter circle of confusion isconsidered acceptable. It is used to calculate depth-of-field or depth of focus.
•Acceptance angle
- see
Angle of View
.
•Accessory shoe
- metal or plastic fitting on the top of the camera which supportsaccessories such as viewfinder, rangefinder, or flash gun.
•Acetate base
- non-inflammable base support for film emulsions which replaced thehighly inflammable cellulose nitrate base.
•Acetic acid
- chemical used for stop baths and to acidify acid fixing solution.
•Acetone
- solvent chemical used in certain processing solutions that contain materialsnot normally soluble in water.
•Achromatic
- lens system that has been corrected for chromatic aberration.
•Acid
- chemical substance with a
pH
value below 7.
•Acid fixing solutions
- solutions which contain an acid to neutralize any carry-over ofalkaline developer on the negative or print.
•Acid hardener
- substance used in acid fixer to help harden the gelatin of the emulsion.
•Acid rinse
- weak acid solution used after development and before fixation. Byneutralizing alkaline developer left on the photographic material it arrests development.
 
 
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•Actinic
- the ability of light to cause a chemical or physical change in a substance.
•Actinometer
- early type of exposure calculator.
•Acuity
- subjective term for the visual sharpness of an image.
•Acutance
- objective measurement of image sharpness.
•Adapter ring
- circular mount, available in several sizes, enabling accessories such asfilters to be used with lenses of different diameters.
•Additive color
- see
Additive Printing
.
Additive printing
- color printing method which produces an image by giving threeseparate exposures, each filtered to one of the three primary color wavelengths, blue,green and red.
•Additive synthesis
- method of producing full-color images by mixing light of the threeprimary color wavelengths, blue, green and red.
Aerial perspective
- the distance or depth effect caused by atmospheric haze. Hazecreates a large amount of extraneous ultra-violet light to which all photographic emulsionsare sensitive.
•AF lock
-
 
stops autofocus operation once the subject is in focus. Useful when shooting asubject outside the focus area in the viewfinder. The photographer should first lock thefocus with the subject inside the focus area, then recompose the shot as neccesary.
•Afocal lens
- lens attachment that alters the focal length of the camera lens withoutdisturbing the distance between the lens and the film plane.
•AF Sensor
- the sensor used to detect focus.
•Aftertreatment
- the treatment of negatives and prints to correct certain faults inexposure and development, or to create special effects.
•Agitation
- method by which fresh solution is brought into contact with the surface ofsensitive materials during photographic processing.
•Air bells
- bubbles of air clinging to the emulsion surface during processing.
•Air brushing
- method of retouching b&w or color photographs where dye is sprayed,under pressure, on to selected areas of the negative or print.
•Air-to-air photography
- photography of aircraft in flight from another aircraft.
•Albert effect
- effect that creates a reversed image. An exposed frame of film, treatedwith dilute chromic acid is exposed to light. Development then gives a positive image bydarkening the film grains that were not initially affected by exposure.
Albumen paper
- printing paper invented by Blanquart-Evrard in the mid-19th centurywhere egg whites were used to coat the paper base prior to sensitization. The albumenadded to the brightness of the white base and substantially improved printed highlights.
•Alcohol thermometer
- instrument used for measuring temperature. It is an inexpensiveand less accurate version of the mercury thermometer.
•Alkalinity
- denotes the degree of alkali in a solution, measured in
pH
values. All valuesabove pH 7 are alkaline.
 
 
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•Allegory
- work of art that treats one subject in the guise of another. An allegoricphotograph usually illustrates a subject that embodies a moral "inner meaning".
•Alum
- chemical used in acid hardening fixing baths.
•Aluminum compounds
- groups of chemicals often used as hardeners in fixing baths.
•Ambient light
- the available light surrounding a subject. Light already existing in anindoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by thephotographer.
Ambrotype
- Mid-19th century photographic process introduced in 1851-52 by FrederickScott Archer and Peter Fry. It used weak
collodion
negatives which were bleached andbacked by a black background which produced the effect of a positive image.
•Amidol
- soluble reducing agent which works at low
pH
values.
•Ammonium chloride
- chemical used in toners and bleachers.
•Ammonium persulfate
- chemical used in super-proportional
reducers
.
•Ammonium sulfide
- pungent but essential chemical in sulfide or sepia toning.
•Ammonium thiosulfate
- highly active fixing agent used in rapid fixing solutions whichworks by converting unused silver halides to soluble complexes.
•Amphitype
- Mid-19th Century process based on an underexposed albumen-on-glassnegative. This was viewed by reflected light against a black background to give a positiveimage similar to a
ambrotype
.
•Anaglyph
- result of forming
stereoscopic
pairs from two positives each dyed a differentcolor, usually green or red.
•Analyzer
- chart, grid or electronic instrument used to determine correct color filtrationwhen making color prints.
•Anamorphic lens
- lens capable of compressing a wide angle of view into a standardframe.
•Anastigmat
- compound lens which has been corrected for the lens
aberration
 "astigmatism".
•Angle of incidence
- when light strikes a surface it forms an angle with an imaginary lineknown as the :normal," which is perpendicular to the surface. The angle created betweenthe incident ray and the normal is referred to as the angle of incidence.
Angle of view
- is the maximum angle of acceptance of a lens which is capable ofproducing an image of usable quality on the film.
Angstrom
- unit of measurement used to indicate specific points of
wavelengths
withinthe electromagnetic spectrum. Visible light rays occur between 4000 - 7000 Å.
•Angular field
- the angle subtended at the lens by the diameter of the largest circle withinwhich the lens gives an image of acceptable sharpness and even illumination.
•Anhydrous
- dehydrated form of chemical. More concentrated, so that less weight isneeded in a formula than the crystalline kind.

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