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Boldea_Synchronous generators_ch4

Boldea_Synchronous generators_ch4

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05/11/2014

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© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
4
-1
4
Large and MediumPower SynchronousGenerators: Topologiesand Steady State
2
E
1
(
);
n
1
1
=
(
1
n
1
=
n
r
1
(
F
1
1
= 0, 
n
1
=
n
r
  
1
1
F
1
n
1
=
n
e
(
V
1
(
F
1
1
n
d
,
q
,
,
0
 
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
4
-2
Synchronous Generators
4.1Introduction
By large powers, we mean here powers above 1 MW per unit, where in general, the rotor magnetic fieldis produced with electromagnetic excitation. There are a few megawatt (MW)
 
power permanent magnet(PM)-rotor synchronous generators (SGs).Almost all electric energy generation is performed through SGs with power per unit up to 1500 MVAin thermal power plants and up to 700 MW per unit in hydropower plants. SGs in the MW and tenthof MW range are used in diesel engine power groups for cogeneration and on locomotives and on ships.We will begin with a description of basic configurations, their main components, and principles of operation, and then describe the steady-state operation in detail.
4.2Construction Elements
The basic parts of an SG are the stator, the rotor, the framing (with cooling system), and the excitationsystem.The stator is provided with a magnetic core made of silicon steel sheets (generally 0.55 mm thick) inwhich uniform slots are stamped. Single, standard, magnetic sheet steel is produced up to 1 m in diameterin the form of a complete circle (Figure 4.1). Large turbogenerators and most hydrogenerators have statorouter diameters well in excess of 1 m (up to 18 m); thus, the cores are made of 6 to 42 segments percircle (Figure 4.2).
FIGURE 4.1
Single piece stator core.
FIGURE 4.2
Divided stator core made of segments.
aabm
p
aStatorsegment
 
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Large and Medium Power Synchronous Generators: Topologies and Steady State
4
-3
The stator may also be split radially into two or more sections to allow handling and permit transportwith windings in slots. The windings in slots are inserted section by section, and their connection isperformed at the power plant site.When the stator with
 N 
s
slots is divided, and the number of slot pitches per segment is
m
 p
, the numberof segments
m
s
is such that(4.1)Each segment is attached to the frame through two key-bars or dove-tail wedges that are uniformly distributed along the periphery (Figure 4.2). In two successive layers (laminations), the segments areoffset by half a segment. The distance between wedges
b
is as follows:(4.2)This distance between wedges allows for offsetting the segments in subsequent layers by half a segment.Also, only one tool for stamping is required, because all segments are identical. To avoid winding damagedue to vibration, each segment should start and end in the middle of a tooth and span over an evennumber of slot pitches.For the stator divided into
S
sectors, two types of segments are usually used. One type has
m
 p
slotpitches, and the other has
n
 p
slot pitches, such that(4.3)With
n
 p
= 0, the first case is obtained, and, in fact, the number of segments per stator sector is an integer.This is not always possible, and thus, two types of segments are required.The offset of segments in subsequent layers is
m
 p
/2 if 
m
 p
is even, (
m
 p
± 1)/2 if 
m
 p
is odd, and
m
 p
/3if 
m
 p
is divisible by three. In the particular case that
n
 p
=
m
 p
/2, we may cut the main segment in twoto obtain the second one, which again would require only one stamping tool. For more details, seeReference [1]. The slots of large and medium power SGs are rectangular and open (Figure 4.3a). The double-layer winding, usually made of magnetic wires with rectangular cross-section, is “kept”inside the open slot by a wedge made of insulator material or from a magnetic material with a lowequivalent tangential permeability that is
μ
r
times larger than that of air. The magnetic wedge may bemade of magnetic powders or of laminations, with a rectangular prolonged hole (Figure 4.3b), “gluedtogether” with a thermally and mechanically resilient resin.
4.2.1The Stator Windings
The stator slots are provided with coils connected to form a three-phase winding. The winding of eachphase produces an airgap fixed magnetic field with 2
 p
1
half-periods per revolution. With
D
is
as theinternal stator diameter, the pole pitch
τ
, that is the half-period of winding magnetomotive force (mmf),is as follows:(4.4)The phase windings are phase shifted by (2/3)
τ
along the stator periphery and are symmetric. The averagenumber of slots per pole per phase
q
is
 N m m
s s p
=
b m a
 p
= =
/22
 N SKm n n m m
s p p p p p
= + < =
;;613
τ π=
D p
is
/2
1

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