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Boldea_Synchronous generators_ch5

Boldea_Synchronous generators_ch5

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© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
5
-1
5
SynchronousGenerators: Modelingfor (and) Transients
 
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
5
-2
Synchronous Generators
5.1Introduction
The previous chapter dealt with the principles of synchronous generators (SGs) and steady state basedon the two-reaction theory. In essence, the concept of traveling field (rotor) and stator magnetomotiveforces (mmfs)
 
and airgap fields at standstill with each other has been used.By decomposing each stator phase current under steady state into two components, one in phase withthe electromagnetic field (emf) and the other phase shifted by 90
°
, two stator mmfs, both traveling atrotor speed, were identified. One produces an airgap field with its maximum aligned to the rotor poles(
d
axis), while the other is aligned to the
q
axis (between poles).The
d
and
q
axes magnetization inductances
 X 
dm
and
 X 
qm
are thus defined. The voltage equations withbalanced three-phase stator currents under steady state are then obtained.Further on, this equation will be exploited to derive all performance aspects for steady state whenno currents are induced into the rotor damper winding, and the field-winding current is direct
.
Thoughunbalanced load steady state was also investigated, the negative sequence impedance
 Z 
could not beexplained theoretically; thus, a basic experiment to measure it was described in the previous chapter.Further on, during transients, when the stator current amplitude and frequency, rotor damper andfield currents, and speed vary, a more general (advanced) model is required to handle the machinebehavior properly.Advanced models for transients include the following:Phase-variable modelOrthogonal-axis (
d–q
) modelFinite-element (FE)/circuit modelThe first two are essentially lumped circuit models, while the third is a coupled, field (distributedparameter) and circuit, model. Also, the first two are analytical models, while the third is a numericalmodel. The presence of a solid iron rotor core, damper windings, and distributed field coils on therotor of nonsalient rotor pole SGs (turbogenerators, 2
 p
1
= 2,4), further complicates the FE/circuitmodel to account for the eddy currents in the solid iron rotor, so influenced by the local magneticsaturation level.In view of such a complex problem, in this chapter, we are going to start with the phase coordinatemodel with inductances (some of them) that are dependent on rotor position, that is, on time. Toget rid of rotor position dependence on self and mutual (stator/rotor) inductances, the
d–q
modelis used. Its derivation is straightforward through the Park matrix transform. The
d–q
model is thenexploited to describe the steady state. Further on, the operational parameters are presented andused to portray electromagnetic (constant speed) transients, such as the three-phase sudden short-circuit.An extended discussion on magnetic saturation inclusion into the
d–q
model is then housed andillustrated for steady state and transients.The electromechanical transients (speed varies also) are presented for both small perturbations(through linearization) and for large perturbations, respectively. For the latter case, numerical solutionsof state-space equations are required and illustrated.Mechanical (or slow) transients such as SG free or forced “oscillations” are presented for electromag-netic steady state.Simplified
d–q
models, adequate for power system stability studies, are introduced and justified insome detail. Illustrative examples are worked out. The asynchronous running is also presented, as it isthe regime that evidentiates the asynchronous (damping) torque that is so critical to SG stability andcontrol. Though the operational parameters with
s
=
ω
 j
lead to various SG parameters and time constants,their analytical expressions are given in the design chapter (Chapter 7), and their measurement is presented as part of  Chapter 8,on testing. This chapter ends with some FE/coupled circuit models related to SG steady state and transients.
 
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Synchronous Generators: Modeling for (and) Transients
5
-3
5.2The Phase-Variable Model
The phase-variable model is a circuit model. Consequently, the SG is described by a set of three statorcircuits coupled through motion with two (or a multiple of two) orthogonally placed (
d
and
q
) damperwindings and a field winding (along axis
d
: of largest magnetic permeance; see Figure 5.1). The statorand rotor circuits are magnetically coupled with each other. It should be noticed that the convention of voltage–current signs (directions) is based on the respective circuit nature: source on the stator and sinkon the rotor. This is in agreement with Poynting vector direction, toward the circuit for the sink andoutward for the source (Figure 5.1).The phase-voltage equations, in stator coordinates for the stator, and rotor coordinates for the rotor,are simply missing any “apparent” motion-induced voltages:(5.1)The rotor quantities are not yet reduced to the stator. The essential parts missing in Equation 5.1 are theflux linkage and current relationships, that is, self- and mutual inductances between the six coupledcircuits in Figure. 5.1. For example,
FIGURE 5.1
Phase-variable circuit model with single damper cage.
bd
b
fd
a
I
a
aI
fd
I
D
I
Q
I
a
c
qc
ω
r
ω
r
I
fd
fd
2P =Sink (motor)Source(generator)HEE
×
HI
a
a
2P =HXEE
×
H
i R ddt i R ddt i R ddt i
 A s a AB S bBC S
+ = −+ = −+ = −ΨΨΨ
DD DDQ QQ f f  f 
Rddt i Rddt I R ddt 
= −= −= −ΨΨΨ

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