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nota pengantar statistik bab 2

# nota pengantar statistik bab 2

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sesuai untuk budak uu
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07/17/2013

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics
DESCRIPTIVEDESCRIPTIVE STATISTICSSTATISTICS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Raw data
- Data recorded in the sequence in which there arecollected and before they are processed or ranked
Array data
- Raw data that is arranged in ascending or descending order.
Here is a list of question asked in a large statistics class and the “raw data” given by oneof the students:
1.
4.
Quantitative raw dataQualitative raw data
These data also called
ungrouped data.
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics
1
Exampl

e 2Example 1

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics
2.2 ORGANIZING AND GRAPHING QUALITATIVE DATA
2.2.1 Frequency Distributions Table
A
frequency distribution
for qualitative data lists all categories and thenumber of elements that belong to each of the categories.It exhibits the frequencies are distributed over various categoriesAlso called as a
frequency distribution table
or simply a
frequency table
.e.g. : The number of students who belong to a certain category is calledthe
frequency

of that category.
2.2.2 Relative Frequency and Percentage Distribution
A relative frequency distribution is a listing of all categories along with their relative frequencies (given as proportions or percentages).
It is commonplace to give the frequency and relative frequency distributiontogether.
Calculating relative frequency and percentage of a category
Relative Frequency of a category= Frequency of that categorySum of all frequenciesPercentage (%) = (Relative Frequency)* 100
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics
2

FORMULA

ξ
Σλ
ϖ
β

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics
A sample of UUM staff-owned vehicles produced by Proton was identified and themake of each noted. The resulting sample follows (
W = Wira, Is = Iswara, Wj =Waja, St = Satria, P = Perdana, Sv = Savvy
):Construct a frequency distribution table for these data with their relative frequencyand percentage.
WWPIsIsPIsWStWjIsWWWjIsWWIsWWjWjIsWjSvWWWWjStWWjSvWIsPSvWjWjWWStWWWWStStPWjSvSolution:
CategoryFrequencyRelativeFrequencyPercentage (%)
Wira1919/50 = 0.380.38*100 = 38Iswara80.1616Perdana40.088Waja100.2020Satria50.1010Savvy40.088
Total501.00100
2.2.3 Graphical Presentation of Qualitative Data
a) Bar Graphs
A graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies of respectivecategories.
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics
3
Example 3